Summary of Findings Regarding Associations Between Deployment to the Gulf War and Specific Health Outcomes

Sufficient Evidence of a Causal Relatioonship

  • PTSD.

Sufficient Evidence of an Association

  • Other psychiatric disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and substance abuse, particularly alcohol abuse. These psychiatric disorders persist for at least 10 years after deployment.

  • Gastrointestinal symptoms consistent with functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia.

  • Multisymptom illness.

  • Chronic fatigue syndrome.

Limited/Suggestive Evidence of an Association

  • ALS.

  • Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain.

  • Self-reported sexual difficulties.

  • Mortality from external causes, primarily motor-vehicle accidents, in the early years after deployment.

Inadequate/Insufficient Evidence to Determine Whether an Association Exists

  • Any cancer.

  • Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs.

  • Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases.

  • Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral performance.

  • Multiple sclerosis.

  • Other neurologic outcomes, such as Parkinson’s disease, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Incidence of cardiovascular diseases.

  • Respiratory diseases.

  • Structural gastrointestinal diseases.

  • Skin diseases.

  • Musculoskeletal system diseases.

  • Specific conditions of the genitourinary system.

  • Specific birth defects.

  • Adverse pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and low birth weight.

  • Fertility problems.

Limited/Suggestive Evidence of No Association

  • Peripheral neuropathy.

  • Mortality from cardiovascular disease in the first 10 years after the war.

  • Decreased lung function in the first 10 years after the war.

  • Hospitalization for genitourinary diseases.

  • Timing of investigations relative to the latency of some health outcomes (for example, cancer and some neurologic outcomes, such as multiple sclerosis [MS], ALS, and Parkinson’s disease).

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