of conducting experiments to observe human-made orbital debris with visible and thermal infrared sensors. She was also a member of the Joint Science Team for the Japanese Hayabusa space probe that orbited and landed on near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa. Much of her experience lies in using ground- and space-based telescopes. She was part of the science team that discovered Neptune’s rings 5 years before confirmation from the 1989 Voyager mission.

ANDREW F. CHENG is chief scientist of the Space Department at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. He was responsible for the overall integrity of science returns from the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission and is the lead for science data analysis and archiving, science planning, and conflict resolution among NEAR science requirements. He was an interdisciplinary scientist for the Galileo mission to Jupiter, investigating magnetospheric physics at Jupiter, and is a co-investigator on the Magnetospheric Imaging team on the Cassini mission to Saturn and Titan. Dr. Cheng was named Maryland Academy of Sciences Outstanding Young Scientist in 1985 and has received five NASA Group Achievement Awards since then. He has authored more than 160 scientific articles. He served on the NRC Task Group on the Forward Contamination of Europa and on the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration.

FRANK CULBERTSON, JR., is a former astronaut and a retired U.S. Navy captain. He is senior vice president and deputy general manager of the Advanced Program Group at Orbital Sciences Corporation where he is responsible for human spaceflight programs, including commercial transportation services to the International Space Station (ISS). Prior to joining Orbital, Mr. Culbertson was a senior vice president at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), initially as program manager of the Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance contract at NASA, before progressing to business unit general management and directorship of SAIC’s Global Climate Change Programs. Mr. Culbertson was a NASA astronaut for 18 years in a variety of critical spaceflight and management roles for NASA’s space shuttle and space station programs, including three launches aboard the space shuttle and command of the ISS. In total, he has logged more than 144 days in space and more than 5 hours of extravehicular activity (space walk) experience. Mr. Culbertson also served as program manager of the Shuttle-Mir Program for 3 years and as deputy program manager for operations for the ISS program.

DAVID C. JEWITT is a professor in the Department of Earth and Space Sciences and the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles. He has focused his research on studying the vast population of small icy bodies in the Kuiper Belt at and beyond the orbits of Neptune and Pluto. He has also studied comets and other primitive bodies of the solar system, many of which are evolved Kuiper Belt objects. Dr. Jewitt is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He has previously served on several NRC committees, including the Committee on a New Science Strategy for Solar System Exploration and the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee.

STEPHEN MACKWELL is the director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas. Prior to his appointment, Dr. Mackwell served as the director of the Bayerisches Geoinstitut at the University of Bayreuth, Germany. Dr. Mackwell has served as program director for geophysics, Division of Earth Sciences, National Science Foundation (NSF; 1993-1994); as member, group chief, and panel chair of the review panel for NASA’s Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program; as expert reviewer for the Department of Energy’s Geosciences Research Program (1993); and as expert consultant for the Division of Earth Sciences, National Science Foundation (1995). Dr. Mackwell conducts laboratory-based research into the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of geological materials under conditions relevant to the mantle and crust of Earth and other terrestrial planets. He served on the NRC Committee on New Opportunities in Solar System Exploration.

H. JAY MELOSH is Distinguished Professor of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and Physics at Purdue University. Some of Dr. Melosh’s previous positions include professor at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona, associate professor of planetary science at the California Institute of Technology, and associate professor of geophysics at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He has made many important contributions to

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