WILLIAM F. BOTTKE is the assistant director of the Department for Space Studies at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in Boulder, Colorado. Dr. Bottke is also the director of the Center for Lunar Origin and Evolution of NASA’s Lunar Science Institute. His research interests include the collisional and dynamical evolution of small-body populations throughout the solar system (e.g., asteroids, comets, irregular satellites, Kuiper Belt objects, meteoroids, dust) and the formation and bombardment history of planetesimals, planets, and satellites. His expertise related to NEOs involves their delivery from their source regions in various asteroid and cometary populations to their observed orbits. By combining models of the dynamical evolution of NEOs to observational data, Dr. Bottke and his colleagues have estimated the debiased orbital and size distribution of the NEO population. He received a B.S. in physics and astrophysics from the University of Minnesota in 1988 and a Ph.D. in planetary science from the University of Arizona in 1995. He has also been a postdoctoral fellow at both the California Institute of Technology (1996-1997) and Cornell University (1997-2000).


WILLIAM E. BURROWS is an aerospace writer and historian. He is former professor of journalism at New York University where he worked for 33 years and was the founder of its graduate Science, Health and Environmental Reporting Program. He covered aviation and space for the New York Times, Washington Post, and Wall Street Journal. He is currently a contributing editor at Air & Space/Smithsonian and the author of 11 books, including This New Ocean: The Story of the First Space Age; Deep Black: Space Espionage and National Security; and The Survival Imperative: Using Space to Protect Earth. He was recently selected for the American Astronautics Society’s 2008 John F. Kennedy Astronautics Award.


ANDREW F. CHENG (see above)


ROBERT D. CULP is a professor of aerospace engineering sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder. In 1966 Dr. Culp received early recognition for applying Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle to optimal impulsive orbit transfer, thus completing the rigorous solution of this popular problem. From 1969 through 1975, Dr. Culp published the complete theoretical solution to the problem of optimal hyperbolic flyby. These definitive results have allowed the application of this optimal transfer technique to many multiplanet missions. He has developed less restrictive and more accurate solutions to the basic problem of satellite drag and decay. He has made significant and lasting contributions to orbit determination techniques, atmospheric entry theory, and optimal atmospheric flight mechanics. In recent years, Dr. Culp has become one of the leading authorities on space debris, satellite fragmentation modeling, hazard to resident space objects, and the space environment. He previously served on the NRC’s Committee on International Space Station Meteoroid/Debris Risk Management.


YANGA (YAN) FERNANDEZ is an assistant professor of planetary science and astronomy at the University of Central Florida. Dr. Fernandez completed his doctoral thesis at the University of Maryland on the thermophysical properties of cometary nuclei. He was a Spitzer Space Telescope Fellow at the University of Hawaii from 2002 to 2005. Dr. Fernandez’s research area is astronomy, specifically planetary science with an emphasis on the small bodies of the solar system. His overarching goal is to understand the thermal, physical, and compositional environment at the time of the solar system’s creation. Some of Dr. Fernandez’s projects involve the use of the Spitzer Space Telescope. He also uses telescopes in Arizona, Hawaii, and Chile to study active comets, dormant comets, NEOs, and outer solar system objects.


LYNNE JONES is currently the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Science Fellow at the University of Washington, where some of her responsibilities include evaluating the LSST’s potential detection efficiency for NEOs under various survey strategies; testing moving-object processing software; and evaluating the LSST’s capabilities to measure light curves, photometric colors, and physical properties of asteroids. Dr. Jones is also a member of the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey collaboration, which has conducted an extensive wide-field, well-characterized survey for trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Dr. Jones previously carried out a deep survey for TNOs, developing a new digital tracking method to search for TNOs fainter than the limiting magnitude in each



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