the following: where, why, and how objects break up in the atmosphere; what the effects of airbursts are, including pulses of electromagnetic energy and consequences for communications and other infrastructure; and what the effects of target material properties for land or water impacts are;

  • Detailed, realistic analytical analyses and simulations to determine the risks of tsunami generation from water impact or airbursts of various types and sizes of impactors;

  • Joint analyses, when possible, of available data on airbursts and data on the corresponding surviving meteorites to establish ground truth;

  • Laboratory study of impact phenomena for a wide variety of impacting and impacted material (i.e., of various physical structures and properties) at speeds of collision up to the highest attainable so as to study, for example, the transfer of momentum to the target due to ejecta of material from it;

  • Leadership and organizational planning, both national and international;

  • The economic and political implications of an NEO impact; and

  • Behavioral research (including national and international workshops) for studying people’s perception of impact risks, including their mental models, and for increasing the understanding of their possible misconceptions and/or lack of knowledge, needed to develop appropriate plans and simulation exercises in preparation for a possible impact event.

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