Present Near-Earth-Object Discovery Efforts,

 

32

   

 Catalina Sky Survey,

 

32

   

 Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research Program,

 

32

   

 Spacewatch,

 

33

   

 Current Space-Based Detection Efforts,

 

33

   

 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer for Near-Earth Objects (NEOWISE),

 

33

   

 Canada’s Near-Earth-Object Surveillance Satellite,

 

34

   

 Germany’s AsteroidFinder,

 

34

   

 Addressing the 140-Meter Requirement: Future Ground- and Space-Based Near-Earth-Object Discovery Efforts,

 

34

   

 Future Telescope Systems for Surveys of Near-Earth Objects,

 

35

   

 Large Synoptic Survey Telescope,

 

35

   

 Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 4,

 

37

   

 Catalina Sky Survey Binocular Telescopes,

 

37

   

 Discovery Channel Telescope,

 

40

   

 Space-Based Detection Techniques,

 

41

   

 0.5-Meter-Diameter Infrared Space Telescope,

 

42

   

 NEO Survey Spacecraft,

 

42

   

 Survey and Detection Schedules,

 

42

   

 Low-Altitude Airburst NEOs: Advance Warning,

 

49

   

 Imminent Impactors: NEOs on Final Approach to an Earth Impact,

 

49

   

 References,

 

50

4

 

CHARACTERIZATION

 

51

   

 Ground-Based Remote Characterization,

 

51

   

 The Role of Radar in the Characterization of Near-Earth Objects,

 

52

   

 Arecibo Radar Observatory,

 

53

   

 Goldstone Solar System Radar,

 

54

   

 Capabilities of Arecibo and Goldstone,

 

56

   

 Operational Reliability of Arecibo and Goldstone,

 

60

   

 Arecibo and Goldstone Radar Operating Costs,

 

60

   

 Recent Funding History of the Arecibo Radar,

 

61

   

 Characterization Issues for Airbursts,

 

62

   

 In Situ Characterization Relevant for Mitigation,

 

63

   

 Human Missions to Near-Earth Objects,

 

64

   

 References,

 

65

5

 

MITIGATION

 

66

   

 Civil Defense: Disaster Preparation and Recovery,

 

69

   

 Slow-Push-Pull Methods,

 

70

   

 Enhancement of Natural Effects,

 

71

   

 Enhanced Evaporation of Surface Material,

 

71

   

 Application of Contact Force,

 

72

   

 Application of Gravitational Force,

 

72

   

 Applicability of Slow-Push-Pull Mitigation Techniques,

 

73

   

 Kinetic Impact Methods,

 

73

   

 Description of Kinetic Impact and Its Use,

 

73

   

 Summary,

 

74



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