He received bachelor’s and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Stanford University and was a postdoctoral fellow at the Harvard Business School. His research addresses the economics of technological innovation and the effects of public policies on innovation; he has testified before congressional committees and served as an adviser for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, federal agencies, private companies, and industrial firms. Dr. Mowery has published numerous academic papers and has written or edited a number of books, including “Ivory Tower” and Industrial Innovation: University-Industry Technology Transfer Before and After the Bayh-Dole Act, Paths of Innovation: Technological Change in 20th-Century America, and The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure. His academic awards include the Raymond Vernon Prize of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, the Economic History Association’s Fritz Redlich Prize, the Business History Review’s Newcomen Prize, and the Cheit Outstanding Teaching Award.

Michael Prats (NAE) is president of Michael Prats & Associates, Inc., a small reservoir engineering consulting firm. Earlier, Mr. Prats worked continuously for or with Shell Oil Company affiliates until his retirement in 1989. He holds a B.S. in physics (with honors) and an M.A. in physics, both from the University of Texas at Austin. In addition to thermal recovery processes (his main field), his areas of expertise include (l) displacement processes, (2) hydraulic fracturing, (3) reservoir characterization, (4) unconventional raw materials (such as coal and oil shale), and (5) reservoir compaction. Mr. Prats holds more than 33 patents, most of them related to oil recovery techniques. He has served as the director of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), as a senior technical editor at SPE, and as chairman of numerous SPE committees. He is an Honorary Member of AIME and the SPE, from which he received the 1974 SPE Lester C. Uren Award Certificate, the 1993 AIME Anthony F. Lucas Gold Medal, and the Thermal Recovery Distinguished Achievement Award in 1991 and was named an AIME Pioneer in Enhanced Oil Recovery in 1986 and in Hydraulic Fracturing in 2005. He was elected to the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, from which he received the Kapitza Gold Medal in 1995, and to the Mexican National Academy of Engineering as corresponding member.

J. Benjamin Reinoehl is principal and part owner of RMW Solutions. He received a B.S. in engineering and an M.B.A. from Lehigh University. Before retiring, he worked at Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., as director of business development, where he was responsible for the worldwide helium and hydrogen product lines and the development of new sources for these gases. Mr. Reinoehl developed the first supply of liquid helium in Algeria from LNG-sourced tail-gases. He received the 1993 Air Products Chairman’s Award for Excellence. His expertise is in helium recovery, purification, liquefaction, and marketing; helium sourcing development,

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