TIAX, LLC—Developing Detailed Forecasts of Fuel Consumption Reducing Technologies:

  • Supported the committee’s evaluation of medium- and heavy-duty vehicle technologies by researching the technologies and their costs through intensive interviews of manufacturers, fleet owners and, others to produce a detailed matrix relating technologies and vehicle types over time.

  • Developed a detailed matrix of fuel-saving technologies, their fuel consumption benefits, and their costs.

  • Focused on a 10-year time frame.

  • Arranged specific site visits for the committee.

Argonne National Laboratory—Modeling and Simulation:

  • Provided quantitative data to support the committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fuel consumption.

  • Provided modeling and simulation analyses of technologies now and into the future for eight vehicle applications: pickup truck, van, delivery straight truck, bucket truck, combination tractor trailer, refuse hauler, urban bus, and intercity highway bus.

Cambridge Systematics and ERG:

  • Examined possible consequences or side effects of fuel economy standards or of technologies to improve the fuel efficiency of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles.

  • Examined alternative approaches to improving fuel efficiency.

The four consultants’ reports are available in the National Academies Public Access File associated with this study.

In addition, the committee distributed a questionnaire to aerodynamics technology stakeholders in the private and academic sectors from which it received useful input. The committee’s efforts were also aided by several industry organizations that hosted site visits providing relevant information, which proved especially helpful for the work of TIAX. They included the following:

  • The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), Ann Arbor

  • Ford Motor Co.

  • Azure Dynamics Corp.

  • Arvin Meritor, Inc.

  • Navistar International Corp.

  • ISE Corp.

  • Allison Transmission, Inc.

  • Peterbilt Trucks (PACCAR Co.)

  • Auto Research Center, Inc., Indianapolis, Ind.

  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Ann Arbor, Mich.

  • Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), San Antonio, Tex.

  • Detroit Diesel Corp.

  • Eaton Corp.

  • Tank and Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC), U.S. Army

  • PACCAR, Inc.

  • Volvo Trucks North America

  • Cummins, Inc.

  • Great Dane Trailers (Great Dane LLC)

  • Walmart

  • Transportation Research Center, Inc.

  • National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA), Washington, D.C.

All of these consultants and industry partners provided invaluable assistance to the committee in its efforts.


This report begins with a summary of the key findings and recommendations. Chapter 1, the introduction, lays the factual background for the reader. Next, Chapter 2 provides vehicle fundamentals necessary for a thorough understanding of the topics addressed in the report. Chapter 3 surveys the current U.S., European, and Asian approaches to fuel economy and regulations. Chapter 4 reviews and assesses power train technologies for reducing load-specific fuel consumption. Chapter 5 covers vehicle technologies for reducing load-specific fuel consumption. The direct and indirect costs and benefits of integrating fuel economy technologies medium- and heavy-duty vehicles are addressed in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 discusses alternative approaches to be considered for reducing the fuel consumption of such vehicles. Chapter 8 discusses approaches to measurement and regulation of fuel consumption.


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