TABLE 2-2 Product Ranges of U.S. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Manufacturers

SOURCE: M.J. Bradley &Associates (2009).

fuel consumption is determined by features of both the tractor and the trailer, no single company is responsible for the development of the complete vehicle. This industry structure will complicate any effort to regulate fuel consumption.

Engine manufacturers are also quite numerous. At least a dozen are contenders, according to Table 2-8, and are highly competitive. The same highly competitive situation is true of the commercial users of vehicles. At one end the highway is home for the truly independent operator, the long-distance trucker. At the other end are large fleets with thousands of trucks supported by sophisticated logistics and maintenance systems.

METRICS TO DETERMINE THE FUEL EFFICIENCY OF VEHICLES

Fuel Economy versus Fuel Consumption

In the wake of the 1973 oil crisis and energy security issues, Congress passed the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163) in 1975 as a means of reducing the country’s dependence on imported oil. The Act established the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program, which required automobile manufacturers to increase the average fuel economy of vehicles sold in the United States to a standard of 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for passenger cars. It also allowed the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to set appropriate standards for light trucks. The standards are administered in DOT by the NHTSA on the basis of



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