FIGURE 3-2 Japanese fuel economy targets for heavy-duty vehicles by weight class. The target is for fiscal year 2015. SOURCE: Presentation to the committee by Akihiko Hoshi, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism, Japan.

FIGURE 3-2 Japanese fuel economy targets for heavy-duty vehicles by weight class. The target is for fiscal year 2015. SOURCE: Presentation to the committee by Akihiko Hoshi, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism, Japan.

FIGURE 3-3 Japanese simulation method incorporating urban and interurban driving modes. SOURCE: Presentation to the committee by Akihiko Hoshi, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism, Japan.

FIGURE 3-3 Japanese simulation method incorporating urban and interurban driving modes. SOURCE: Presentation to the committee by Akihiko Hoshi, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism, Japan.

U.S. APPROACH: EPA SMARTWAY VOLUNTARY CERTIFICATION PROGRAM

In 2004 the EPA began development and implementation of SmartWay, an organized effort to specify a collection of current and emerging technologies for creating efficient tractor-trailer combinations with the best environmental performance in terms of both air pollution and emission of greenhouse gases. The certification program uses existing (2007) EPA test methods, supplemented by additional testing, available industry test data, and ongoing research. SmartWay designations are limited to new passenger vehicles (cars, light trucks, sport utility vehicles, vans), new Class 8 sleeper trucks, new 53-ft dry van trailers, and retrofit 53-ft dry van trailers but will include other truck types in the future. The partnership program under SmartWay includes other types of trucks above 8,500 gross vehicle weight rating, in that some participants include their medium-duty trucks in the partnership. Certification allows carriers, manufacturers, and shippers to apply the SmartWay logo (Figure 3-6) to their products as a signal to consumers and the community that they are taking actions to limit the negative environmental impacts of their business operations.

To attain SmartWay certification, tractors must have an aerodynamic profile that includes a high roof sleeper, integrated roof fairings, cab side extenders, fuel tank side fairings, and aerodynamic bumpers and mirrors (Figure 3-7). They must be powered by a 2007 or newer engine, with a SmartWay-approved option for idle reduction. The tires must be SmartWay-approved, low-rolling-resistance tires; the use of aluminum wheels for weight reduction is an option. The tractor specification is a design attribute only. EPA sets no vehicle-level performance targets in SmartWay and requires



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