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Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
manufacturers. Trailers, which present an important opportunity for fuel consumption reduction, can benefit from improvements in aerodynamics and tires.
Recommendation 8-1. When NHTSA regulates, it should regulate the final-stage vehicle manufacturers since they have the greatest control over the design of the vehicle and its major subsystems that affect fuel consumption. Component manufacturers will have to provide consistent component performance data. As the components are generally tested at this time, there is a need for a standardized test protocol and safeguards for the confidentiality of the data and information. It may be necessary for the vehicle manufacturers to provide the same level of data to the tier suppliers of the engines, transmissions, and after-treatment and hybrid systems.
Recommendation 8-3. NHTSA should establish fuel consumption metrics tied to the task associated with a particular type of MHDV and set targets based on potential improvements in vehicle efficiency and vehicle or trailer changes to increase cargo-carrying capacity. NHTSA should determine whether a system of standards for full but lightly loaded (cubed-out) vehicles can be developed using only the LSFC metric or whether these vehicles need a different metric to properly measure fuel efficiency without compromising the design of the vehicles.
Finding 8-7. Some certification and compliance methods seem more practical than others, and the committee acknowledges that there may be other options or variations that have yet to be identified. Regulating total vehicle fuel consumption of MHDVs will be a formidable task due to the complexity of the fleet, the various work tasks performed, and the variations in fuel-consumption-related technologies within given classes, including vehicles of the same model and manufacturer.
Finding 8-9. Using the process and results from existing engine dynamometer testing for criteria emissions to certify fuel economy standards for MHDVs would build on proven, accurate, and repeatable methods and put less additional administrative burden on the industry. However, to account for the fuel consumption benefits of hybrid power trains and transmission technology, the present engine-only tests for emissions certification will need to be augmented with other power train components added to the engine test cell, either as real hardware or as simulated components. Similarly, the vehicle attributes (aerodynamics, tires, mass) will need to be accounted for, one approach being to use vehicle-specific prescribed loads (via models) in the test cycle. This will require close cooperation among component manufacturers and vehicle manufacturers.
Recommendation 8-4. Simulation modeling should be used with component test data and additional tested inputs from power train tests, which could lower the cost and administrative burden yet achieve the needed accuracy of results. This is similar to the approach taken in Japan, but with the important clarification that the program would represent all of the parameters of the vehicle (power train, aerodynamics, and tires) and relate fuel consumption to the vehicle task.
Finding 8-13. There is an immediate need to take the findings and recommendations in this report and begin the development of a regulatory approach. Significant engineering work is needed to produce an approach that results in fuel efficiency standards that are cost-effective and that accurately represent the effects of fuel-consumption-reducing technologies. The regulations should fit into the engineering and development cycle of the industry and provide meaningful data to vehicle purchasers.
Recommendation 8-5. Congress should appropriate money for and NHTSA should implement as soon as possible a major engineering contract that would analyze several actual vehicles covering several applications and develop an approach to component testing and related data collection in conjunction with vehicle simulation modeling to arrive at LSFC data for these vehicles. The actual vehicles should also be tested by appropriate full-scale test procedures to confirm the actual LSFC values and the reductions measured with fuel consumption reduction technologies in order to validate the evaluation method.
Recommendation 8-6. NHTSA should conduct a pilot program to “test drive” the certification process and validate the regulatory instrument proof of concept. It should have these elements:
Gain experience with certification testing, data gathering, compiling, and reporting. There needs to be a concerted effort to determine the accuracy and repeatability of all the test methods and simulation strategies that will be used with any proposed regulatory standards and a willingness to fix issues that are found.
Gather data on fuel consumption from several representative fleets of vehicles. This should continue to provide a real-world check on the effectiveness of the regulatory design on the fuel consumption of trucking fleets in various parts of the marketplace and in various regions of the country.
DOE, EIA. 2009. Annual Energy Outlook 2010 (Preliminary). Washington, D.C., December.
TIAX, LLC. 2009. Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Medium-and Heavy-Duty Vehicles. Final Report. Report to the National Academy of Sciences. Cambridge, Mass. September.
TRB (Transportation Research Board). 2002. Special Report 267: Regulation of Weights, Lengths, and Widths of Commercial Motor Vehicles. Washington, D.C.: TRB.