7-1

 

Five-axle tractor-semi vehicle-miles traveled by operating weight (cumulative percentage),

 

165

7-2

 

U.S. national ITS architecture,

 

168

7-3

 

Example of truck-only lanes,

 

171

7-4

 

Concept for reducing the need for additional road right-of-way,

 

172

7-5

 

Elevated truck lanes,

 

172

8-1

 

Shared responsibility for major elements that affect heavy-duty-vehicle fuel efficiency,

 

180

8-2

 

Illustration of diversity of trailer and power unit (tractor) options,

 

181

8-3

 

Identical tractors used to pull trailers of different mass capacity but identical volume capacity,

 

184

8-4

 

CIL test of a hybrid vehicle power train to determine vehicle fuel consumption on a specific test route,

 

187

8-2-1

 

Identical GVW rated straight trucks for high- and low-density commodities,

 

196

8-2-2

 

Options for performance metrics,

 

196

E-1

 

Fuel consumption (FC) versus fuel economy (FE) (upper half of figure) and slope of FC/FE curve (lower half of figure),

 

215

G-1

 

Vehicle modeling tool requirements,

 

222

G-2

 

Different nomenclatures within each company currently make model exchange very difficult,

 

225

H-1

 

V diagram for software development,

 

228

H-2

 

Different levels of modeling required throughout the model-based design process,

 

228

H-3

 

Simulation,

 

229

H-4

 

Rapid control prototyping,

 

229

H-5

 

On-target rapid prototyping,

 

229

H-6

 

Production code generation,

 

229

H-7

 

Software-in-the-loop,

 

229

H-8

 

Processor-in-the-loop,

 

229

H-9

 

Hardware-in-the-loop,

 

230

H-10

 

Engine on dynamometer,

 

230

H-11

 

Battery connected to a DC power source,

 

231

H-12

 

Several components in the loop—MATT example,

 

231

H-13

 

Mixing components hardware and software—MATT example,

 

231

H-14

 

Example of potential process use,

 

232

H-15

 

Mean particulate matter results with two standard deviation error bars,

 

233

H-16

 

Main phases requiring standardized processes,

 

234



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement