cal statistics, edited by C. R. Rao, J. P. Miller and D. C. Rao. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier. Pp. 28-63.

Rubin, D. B. 2010. Reflections stimulated by the comments of Shadish (2010) and West and Thoemmes (2010). Psychological Methods 15(1):38-46.

RWJF (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation). 2006. Early assessment of environmental interventions to prevent childhood obesity. meeting summary, January 19–20, 2006. http://www. rwjf.org/files/publications/other/EA%20Report%200612.pdf (accessed January 4, 2010).

RWJF. 2009. Early assessment of programs and policies on childhood obesity. http://www.rwjf. org/pr/product.jsp?id=37330 (accessed January 4, 2010).

Sacks, H. S., T. C. Chalmers, and H. Smith Jr. 1983. Sensitivity and specificity of clinical trials: Randomized v historical controls. Archives of Internal Medicine 143(4):753-755.

Shadish, W. R. 2010. Campbell and Rubin: A primer and comparison of their approaches to causal inference in field settings. Psychological Methods 15(1):3-17.

Shadish, W. R., and T. D. Cook. 1999. Design rules: More steps toward a complete theory of quasi-experimentation. Statistical Science 14:294-300.

Shadish, W. R., and T. D. Cook. 2009. The renaissance of field experimentation in evaluating interventions. Annual Review of Psychology 60:607-629.

Shadish, W. R., T. D. Cook, and D. T. Campbell. 2002. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Shadish, W. R., M. H. Clark, and P. M. Streiner. 2008. Can nonrandomized experiments yield accurate answers? A randomized experiment comparing random and nonrandom assignments. Journal of the American Statistical Association 103:1334-1356.

Shepherd, W. L., and A. Moore. 2008. Task force recommendations: Application in the “real world” of community intervention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35(1, Supplement):S1-S2.

Simons-Morton, D. G., P. D. Mullen, D. A. Mains, E. R. Tabak, and L. W. Green. 1992. Characteristics of controlled studies of patient education and counseling for preventive health behaviors. Patient Education and Counseling 19(2):175-204.

Spirtes, P., C. Glymour, and R. Scheines. 2000. Causation, prediction, and search. 2nd ed. New York: MIT Press.

Splawa-Neyman, J., D. M. Dabrowska, and T. P. Speed. 1990. On the application of probability theory to agricultural experiments. Essay on principles. Section 9. Statistical Science 5(4):465-472.

Steckler, A., and K. R. McLeroy. 2008. The importance of external validity. American Journal of Public Health 98(1):9-10.

Tabak, E. R., P. D. Mullen, D. G. Simons-Morton, L. W. Green, D. A. Mains, S. EilatGreenberg, R. F. Frankowski, and M. C. Glenday. 1991. Definition and yield of inclusion criteria for a meta-analysis of patient education studies in clinical preventive services. Evaluation and the Health Professions 14(4):388-411.

Varnell, S. P., D. M. Murray, J. B. Janega, and J. L. Blitstein. 2004. Design and analysis of group-randomized trials: A review of recent practices. American Journal of Public Health 94(3):393-399.

Weisz, J. R., B. Weiss, and G. R. Donenberg. 1992. The lab versus the clinic: Effects of child and adolescent psychotherapy. American Psychologist 47(12):1578-1585.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement