Types of Studies (e.g., RCTs, quasi-experimental, qualitative)

Outcome Measures (e.g., BMI, diet, physical activity, other behaviors, environment)

Length of Intervention and/or Follow-up


No. After Applying Criteria

Included: any study design

Measure of adiposity (BMI, body weight, skinfold thickness, percent body fat)

> 8 weeks (for secondary prevention trials)

Included: English language

Not reported

Excluded: meta-analyses and reviews (different selection criteria)

Excluded: conducted in a developing country; not peer-reviewed; n < 30 in secondary prevention trials, n < 60 in primary prevention trials

≥ 6 months (for primary prevention trials) (not including duration of follow-up)

Included: domestic and international studies that used physical activity and nutritional strategies in interventions to prevent or treat overweight

Measure of weight status, BMI, or body fat

≥ 3 months study length

Studies were not excluded because of their aim (for example, did not have to include weight change), design, or duration of intervention or follow-up if ≥ 3 months

7 (2 treatment and 5 prevention)

Excluded: case reports or series

RCTs or controlled clinical trials of lifestyle interventions

Included: same criteria used by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) obesity guidance with one exception—included studies had to report a weight outcome, either as absolute or change, and could use BMI, BMI z-score, percentage of body fat, skin-fold thickness, and percentage of overweight

≥ 12 weeks study length

Included: minimum duration of 12 weeks; done in a school setting (studies were not included or excluded based on their aim)


Included: study designs that compared lifestyle interventions (defined in article) with usual care or with other active interventions

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement