Cluster randomization design, 172173

Cochrane Collaboration of Systematic Reviews, 59, 121, 138, 225

COCOMO. See Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention

Cohort studies, 215

as sources of evidence, 100101

Committee on an Evidence Framework for Obesity Prevention Decision Making, 2, 17, 1922, 197

Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention, 110, 224

Communicating and disseminating the framework, 188193

channels, 190191

implementation and monitoring, 192193

messages and materials, 192

objectives, 188

partnerships, 191192

recommendations concerning, 1415, 205206

target audiences, 188190

Communities and neighborhoods

approaches designed to foster changes in, 27, 4344

Community assessment (needs assessment), 9193, 135

Community-based participatory research, 295

Community Preventive Services Task Force, 123

Comorbidities. See Diseases related to obesity

Comparative effectiveness research, 118120

as areas of evidence needed, 9394

Comparative experiments

as areas of evidence needed, 9394

Comprehensive approach for preventing and addressing childhood obesity, 29

Conceptual frameworks for evidence selection

lack of, 5758

Conclusions, of the L.E.A.D. framework for obesity prevention decision making, 198201

Congressional Budget Office, 162

Consensus views. See Expert knowledge

Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials, 121

Content analysis, 61

as sources of evidence, 104108

Context, 5, 138

evaluating, 78, 115123

influencing interventions, 6364

from a systems perspective/rationale, 7187, 151152

Continuous quality assessment, of ongoing programs, 171

Coordinated Approach to Child Health program, 49

Cost/benefit analysis

as areas of evidence needed, 9596

Cost-effectiveness analysis

as areas of evidence needed, 9596

Cost-feasibility analysis

as areas of evidence needed, 95

Cost-minimization analysis

as areas of evidence needed, 95

Cost-utility analysis

as areas of evidence needed, 95

Cross-cutting factors, 3940

Cross-sectional studies

as sources of evidence, 100102

D

Decision makers, 3, 27, 201

See also Target audiences

defined, 211

and intermediaries, 22, 188189

Decision making

comprehensive approach for preventing and addressing childhood obesity, 29

context of, 138

evidence-informed, 2

obesity prevention, and evidence needs, 2630

physical, social, and emotional health consequences of obesity in adults, children, and youth, 27

relative risk of health problems associated with obesity in adults, 27

Defining the problem, 7187.

See also Systems perspective

application and future directions, 8384

relation to the L.E.A.D. framework, 83

understanding a systems approach, 7274

uses of systems thinking, approaches, mapping, and modeling, 7583

Delphi Method, 126127

Design elements

that strengthen causal inferences in observational studies, 285

used in constructing quasi-experiments in Campbell’s perspective, 178179

Desired outcomes, 194.

See also Evaluating and refining the L.E.A.D. framework

Diabetes. See Diseases related to obesity

Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 40, 46

Diseases related to obesity, 21, 2627, 3637

Disparities, 3839

Dissemination

of the L.E.A.D. framework, 10, 188193

“Downstream” approaches, 39

E

EBM. See Evidence-based medicine

EBPH. See Evidence-based public health

EBPP. See Evidence-based public policy

Ecological models, 2829, 4142, 72

Economic cost analysis, 288290



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement