APPENDIX A

Committee on Reviewing and Updating
“Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban
Treaty” (CTBT)

Committee Member Biographies

Ellen D. Williams (NAS), Chair, is the Chief Scientist at BP, where she is responsible for long-range scientific advice and planning. Prior to joining BP, she worked for over thirty years in academia, obtaining her Ph.D at Caltech in 1981 and then moving to the University of Maryland, where she became a Distinguished University Professor in the Institute of Physical Science and Technology and the Department of Physics in 2000. Her research specialty in nanoscience lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry and materials science. In support of her research interests, in 1996 she founded the University of Maryland Materials Research Science and Engineering Center and served as its director for 15 years. In parallel, she has worked extensively in providing technical advice to the U.S. government, primarily through the Departments of Energy and Defense, including service on the Congressional Committee to Review the Strategic Posture of the United States. Dr. Williams has published widely in her research specialty and has served on a large number of professional committees and editorial boards. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences; is a fellow of the American Physical Society, American Vacuum Society and American Academy of Arts and Sciences; and has been recognized by awards from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the American Physical Society, and the Materials Research Society.

Marvin L. Adams is HTRI professor of nuclear engineering and Director of the Institute for National Security Education and Research at Texas A&M University. He earned his B.S from Mississippi State University in 1981, his M.S. from the University of Michigan in 1984, and his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1986, all in nuclear engineering. From 1977 to 1982, he worked at Tennessee Valley Authority’s Sequoyah Nuclear Plant and its support office. He joined Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1986. He left Livermore in 1992 for the faculty position that he continues to hold at Texas A&M University. In 2006–2007, he directed the Center for Large-scale Scientific Simulation at Texas A&M, and from 2005 until 2009, he served as Associate Vice President for Research. He has served as a consultant to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Mitre Corporation. Dr. Adams has authored or co-authored more than 100 research publications, most in the area of computational science and engineering, and he is a Fellow of the American Nuclear Society.

Theodore (Ted) Bowyer is an AAAS Fellow and a Laboratory Fellow/program manager in the area of nuclear explosion monitoring and policy support at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In 1994, he received a Ph.D. in nuclear physics from Indiana University and since that time has worked at PNNL in a variety of nonproliferation programs related to nuclear weapons material production detection, nuclear testing detection, and nonproliferation policy. He spent several years in the Office of Nonproliferation Policy at DOE/NNSA where he served as a scientific advisor on the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and related Nuclear



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APPENDIX A Committee on Reviewing and Updating “Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty” (CTBT) Committee Member Biographies Ellen D. Williams (NAS), Chair, is the Chief Scientist at BP, where she is responsible for long- range scientific advice and planning. Prior to joining BP, she worked for over thirty years in academia, obtaining her Ph.D at Caltech in 1981 and then moving to the University of Maryland, where she became a Distinguished University Professor in the Institute of Physical Science and Technology and the Department of Physics in 2000. Her research specialty in nanoscience lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry and materials science. In support of her research interests, in 1996 she founded the University of Maryland Materials Research Science and Engineering Center and served as its director for 15 years. In parallel, she has worked extensively in providing technical advice to the U.S. government, primarily through the Departments of Energy and Defense, including service on the Congressional Committee to Review the Strategic Posture of the United States. Dr. Williams has published widely in her research specialty and has served on a large number of professional committees and editorial boards. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences; is a fellow of the American Physical Society, American Vacuum Society and American Academy of Arts and Sciences; and has been recognized by awards from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the American Physical Society, and the Materials Research Society. Marvin L. Adams is HTRI professor of nuclear engineering and Director of the Institute for National Security Education and Research at Texas A&M University. He earned his B.S from Mississippi State University in 1981, his M.S. from the University of Michigan in 1984, and his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1986, all in nuclear engineering. From 1977 to 1982, he worked at Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Plant and its support office. He joined Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1986. He left Livermore in 1992 for the faculty position that he continues to hold at Texas A&M University. In 2006–2007, he directed the Center for Large-scale Scientific Simulation at Texas A&M, and from 2005 until 2009, he served as Associate Vice President for Research. He has served as a consultant to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Mitre Corporation. Dr. Adams has authored or co-authored more than 100 research publications, most in the area of computational science and engineering, and he is a Fellow of the American Nuclear Society. Theodore (Ted) Bowyer is an AAAS Fellow and a Laboratory Fellow/program manager in the area of nuclear explosion monitoring and policy support at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In 1994, he received a Ph.D. in nuclear physics from Indiana University and since that time has worked at PNNL in a variety of nonproliferation programs related to nuclear weapons material production detection, nuclear testing detection, and nonproliferation policy. He spent several years in the Office of Nonproliferation Policy at DOE/NNSA where he served as a scientific advisor on the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and related Nuclear 129

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130 The CTBT- Technical Issues for the U.S. Testing Limitations treaties and agreements, as well as the Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty. Dr Bowyer has spent significant time serving the U.S. Delegations to the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva and CTBT Working Group B (WGB) in Vienna as a technical advisor. Currently, Dr. Bowyer serves as the chair of the CTBT WGB Radionuclide Expert Group and chair of the U.S. Radionuclide Subgroup of the Verification Monitoring Task Force. Ted Bowyer's research interests include radioactive noble gas measurements, nuclear forensics, and nuclear detector development, including the design of the U.S. Automated Radioxenon Sampler-Analyzer (ARSA), which received the Federal Laboratory Consortium award in 2001. Linton F. Brooks served from July 2002 to January 2007 as Administrator of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, where he was responsible for the U.S. nuclear weapons program and for the Department of Energy's international nuclear nonproliferation programs. He has five decades of experience in national security, including service as Assistant Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Chief U.S. Negotiator for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, Director of Defense Programs and Arms Control on the National Security Council staff, Vice President for Policy Analyses at the Center for Naval Analyses and a number of Navy and Defense Department assignments as a 30-year career naval officer. Currently he is an independent consultant on national security issues, a Senior Advisor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a Distinguished Research Fellow at the National Defense University, and an advisor to two of the Department of Energy weapons laboratories. Ambassador Brooks holds degrees in physics from Duke University and in government and politics from the University of Maryland and is a Distinguished Graduate of the U.S. Naval War College. Donald D. Cobb held several technical staff and management positions at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) beginning in 1976, including Division Leader for Space Science and Technology, Division Leader of Nonproliferation and International Security Division, and Associate Director for Threat Reduction. In 2004, he was named Deputy Director responsible for oversight of all LANL operations pending the transition of the University of California's Laboratory management contract. Dr. Cobb retired from the University of California in 2006 and remains as a guest scientist at LANL. During his 30 years of experience in nuclear safeguards and weapon phenomenology, Dr. Cobb conducted research on the detection of atmospheric nuclear detonations and led designs of safeguards systems for nuclear power facilities. As project leader for the successful Beam Experiments Aboard Rocket (BEAR) experiment (1989), Dr. Cobb received a Laboratory Distinguished Performance Award and certificate of merit from the Department of Defense Strategic Defense Initiative Office. In 1991, he spent a year assigned at the Department of Energy's Office of Space in Washington, D.C. In 1998–2000, he served as a member of the New Mexico Governor's Space Commission. In 2002, he was a member of the Defense Science Board task force on nuclear threats. In 2006, Dr. Cobb was awarded the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration's Gold Medallion, its highest award for exceptional service. He is currently employed by the Department of Defense as a Highly Qualified Expert (nonproliferation and arms control) and serves as a senior advisor to the Director, Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Dr. Cobb is a member of the University of New Mexico Space Technology and Applications International Forum steering committee, the American Physical Society, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in physics from Northern Illinois University and a Master of Science and Ph.D. in theoretical nuclear physics from the University of Iowa. He currently serves on the boards of the United Way/Northern New Mexico and the LANL Foundation.

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131 Appendix A: Committee Biographies Richard L. Garwin (NAS/NAE/IOM) received his B.S. in physics from Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, in 1947, and his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago in 1949. He is IBM Fellow Emeritus at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York. After three years on the faculty of the University of Chicago, he joined IBM Corporation in 1952. Until June 1993 he was IBM Fellow at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York and Adjunct Professor of Physics at Columbia University. In addition, he is a consultant to the U.S. government on matters of military technology, arms control, and other security matters. He has been Director of the IBM Watson Laboratory, Director of Applied Research at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and a member of the IBM Corporate Technical Committee. He has also been Professor of Public Policy in the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. He has made contributions in the design of nuclear weapons, in instruments and electronics for research in nuclear and low-temperature physics, in the establishment of the non conservation of parity and the demonstration of some of its striking consequences, in computer elements and systems (including superconducting devices) in communication systems, in the behavior of solid helium, in the detection of gravitational radiation, and in military technology. He has published more than 500 papers, has been granted 46 U.S. patents, and is coauthor of many books. He was a member of the President's Science Advisory Committee 1962-1965 and 1969-1972, and of the Defense Science Board 1966–69. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, IEEE, and American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, the Council on Foreign Relations, the International Institute of Strategic Studies, and the American Philosophical Society. From 2001 to 2008, he chaired Department of State's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Advisory Board. In 2002, he was elected for a second three-year term to the Council of the National Academy of Sciences. He is a member of the Committee on International Security and Arms Control of the National Academies of Science. He has received several awards from the U.S. Government, including the R.V. Jones Award for Scientific Intelligence, the Enrico Fermi Award, and the National Medal of Science (nuclear weapons design; stockpile stewardship). Raymond Jeanloz (NAS) is a professor of Earth and Planetary Science and of Astronomy at the University of California at Berkeley. He currently chairs the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on International Security and Arms Control; previously chaired the National Research Council's Board on Earth Sciences and Resources; and has served as an adviser to the Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and NASA, as well as the Directors of Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. His work, including scientific research on the properties of materials at high pressures and temperatures and on the constitution and evolution of planetary interiors, has been recognized through fellowship in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Geophysical Union and American Physical Society; membership in the National Academy of Sciences; and a MacArthur Prize Fellowship. After completing his bachelor's degree (Amherst College, 1975), he received his Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology in 1979 and joined the faculty of Harvard University before moving to UC Berkeley in 1981. Richard W. Mies, Admiral, US Navy (retired), is the CEO and President of The Mies Group, Ltd. and provides strategic planning and risk assessment advice and assistance to clients on international security, energy, defense, and maritime issues. A distinguished graduate of the US Naval Academy, he completed a 35-year career as a nuclear submariner in the U.S. Navy and commanded U.S. Strategic Command for four years prior to retirement in 2002. Admiral Mies served as a Senior Vice President and Deputy Group President of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and as the President and Chief Executive Officer of Hicks and

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132 The CTBT- Technical Issues for the U.S. Associates, Inc, a wholly owned subsidiary of SAIC from 2002 to 2007. He also served as the Chairman of the Department of Defense Threat Reduction Advisory Committee from 2004 to 2010. He presently serves as the Chairman of the Boards of the Navy Mutual Aid Association and the Naval Submarine League and as the Chairman of the Strategic Advisory Group of US Strategic Command. He is a member of the Committee on International Security and Arms Control of the National Academy of Sciences; a member of the Boards of Governors of Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; and a member of the Board of Directors of Mutual of Omaha Company, Babcock and Wilcox Company, and Exelon Corporation. He also serves on numerous advisory boards. Admiral Mies completed post- graduate education at Oxford University, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, and Harvard University. He holds a Masters degree in government administration and international relations. C. Bruce Tarter is the Director Emeritus of the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and was the eighth director to lead the Laboratory since it was founded in 1952. A theoretical physicist by training and experience, he has spent most of his career at the Laboratory. As director, he led the Laboratory in its mission to ensure national security and apply science and technology to the important problems of our time. He received a bachelor's degree in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. from Cornell University. His career at the Livermore Laboratory began in 1967 as a staff member in the Theoretical Physics Division. He led the Laboratory through the transition to a post-Cold War nuclear weapons world, helping to set the foundation for current programs in stewardship of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. He also worked to build the programs in nonproliferation and counter- terrorism, and in energy, environment, and bioscience. Tarter has served in a number of outside professional capacities, including a six-year period with the Army Science Board; service as an adjunct professor at the University of California, Davis; membership on the California Council on Science and Technology, the Laboratory Operations Board (Secretary of Energy Advisory Board), the Council on Foreign Relations, the Defense Science Board, the Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States, and Draper Laboratory (member of the Corporation and the Board of Directors). He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science and received the Roosevelt's Gold Medal Award for Science (1998), NNSA Gold Medal for Distinguished Service (2002), and U.S. Department of Energy Secretary's Gold Award (2002).

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133 Appendix A: Committee Biographies Subcommittee on Seismology: In Support of the Committee on Reviewing and Updating “Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty” (CTBT) Subcommittee Member Biographies Lynn R. Sykes (NAS), Subcommittee Chair, is the Higgins Professor Emeritus, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University. He received his Bachelor of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1960; Master of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1960; and Ph.D., Columbia University, 1965. His research interests include: earthquake studies, control of nuclear weapons, tectonics, and natural hazards. Of particular relevance to the study, he has worked on topics that have significant scientific and public policy components such as large earthquakes in California and Alaska, the causes of earthquakes in plate interiors such as the eastern United States, natural and technological hazards and disasters, and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. He is known for using seismic and other data from the Earth sciences to characterize earthquakes and explosions. Dr. Sykes has authored or coauthored more than 140 scientific papers, about 40 of which are in the area of the verification of nuclear testing, and he was a member of the U.S. delegation that negotiated the Threshold Test Ban Treaty with the USSR in 1974. In addition to being a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, he is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and in 2000 received the Vetelesen Award along with Walter Pitman and Jason Morgan for contributions to the development of plate tectonics. Hans Hartse has been a research seismologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1992. His areas of expertise include seismic event discrimination at regional and local distances, analyses of mining-related seismicity, seismic coda studies, seismic event location methods, and seismic database construction and exploitation. His studies have primarily focused on Asia with an emphasis on China, Kazakhstan, and Russia. In 2002, he co-edited (with William Walter) a "Pure and Applied Geophysics" special journal volume titled "Seismic Event Discrimination and Identification related to Monitoring a CTBT." He has authored journal articles concerning nuclear explosion event identification at Nevada Test Site, the former Soviet Test Site in Kazakhstan, Russia's Novaya Zemlya Test Site, and China's Lop Nor Test Site. He earned a B.S. in Geophysical Engineering (1982) from Montana Tech, M.S. in Geophysics (1987) from New Mexico Tech, and Ph.D. in Geophysics (1991) from New Mexico Tech, where he studied reflected phases from locally-recorded seismograms associated with the Socorro Magma Body. Paul G. Richards is Mellon Professor Emeritus of the Natural Sciences, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, and former chairman of Geological Sciences at the university. He served on the original NAS Committee on Technical Issues Related to the CTBT (2000–2003) and on NRC Panels on Seismological Data and Research Requirements for a CTBT (1994–1995; 1995–1997). He was a Foster Fellow at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (1984–1985 and 1993–1994), and during the CTBT negotiations in Geneva he presented an experts paper (1994) for the U.S. on the problems posed by chemical explosions. He spent a sabbatical at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1989–1990). He is co-author of an advanced text (Quantitative Seismology) and co-discoverer of seismological

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134 The CTBT- Technical Issues for the U.S. evidence that the Earth's inner core has a super-rotation. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and former president of its seismology section. Dr. Richards was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2008 and received the 2009 Harry Fielding Reid medal of the Seismological Society of America. Gregory van der Vink is President and CEO of Terrametrics LLC, a firm that specializes in poverty reduction and conflict mitigation through environmentally-sustainable economic development and analytical assessments of human responses to environmental change. Prior to Terrametrics LLC, he held senior executive positions in the largest National Science Foundation-funded geoscience research programs. Since 1991, he has also been teaching at Princeton University and currently teaches courses on environmentally-sustainable economic development and environmental entrepreneurship. He was named Princeton's 250th Anniversary Professor for Distinguished Teaching in 2000/2001 and was awarded the Engineering Council's Excellence in Teaching Award in 2004. Dr. van der Vink received his Ph.D. in Geosciences from Princeton University. He has been a National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellow, a Congressional Science Fellow, and an International Affairs Fellow of the Council on Foreign Relations. William R. Walter is a research geophysicist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the LLNL program leader of the DOE/NNSA Office of Nonproliferation and Verification Research & Development (NA-22) funded Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (GNEM) and Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) funded Nuclear Testing Limitations (NTL) Program. He received a B.A. in Physics from Middlebury College in 1984, and M.S. in Physics from U.C. San Diego in 1986, and a Ph.D. in Geophysics from the University of Nevada, Reno in 1991. In graduate school, he collected and analyzed local seismic data from U.S. nuclear tests in Nevada and the 1988 Soviet Joint Verification Experiment nuclear test in what is now Kazakhstan. He joined LLNL as a postdoc in 1991 and served as the GNEM Identification task leader from 1996 until becoming the LLNL GNEM program leader in 2007. He became the LLNL NTL program leader in 2010. His research interests include geophysics, seismic source physics, earth structure, tectonics, treaty verification and related policy issues. He is the author or co-author of more than 50 peer- reviewed scientific papers.