tion for each move a child makes, after other factors are accounted for. In other words, the effect of mobility is consistently negative and increases with the frequency of moves, although it is smaller than the effect of other factors, such as the family’s socioeconomic status or home environment. To explore the question further, Reynolds conducted a meta-analysis of research conducted since 1990 that examined the effects of school or residential mobility on achievement or dropout rates (Reynolds, Chen, and Herbers, 2009b). His goal was to consider impacts that are evident in the early school years as well as those that linger through high school, especially dropout rates.
The 16 studies Reynolds identified measured nonstructural school moves across grades K-12. Each had measured premobility achievement levels and also included a full set of control variables, and each provided measures of reading and mathematics achievement as well as school dropout. Nevertheless, the studies that met Reynolds’s criteria still varied in many ways, using different covariates and measures of achievement, for example, and investigating different sorts of moves, made at different points in children’s lives. Only five of the studies examined outcomes for students more than three years after their school