STUDENT MOBILITY

Exploring the Impacts of Frequent Moves on Achievement

Summary of a Workshop

Alexandra Beatty, Rapporteur

Committee on the Impact of Mobility and Change on the Lives of Young Children, Schools, and Neighborhoods

Board on Children, Youth, and Families

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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STUDENT MOBILITY Exploring the Impacts of Frequent Moves on Achievement Summar y of a Workshop Alexandra Beatty, Rapporteur Committee on the Impact of Mobility and Change on the Lives of Young Children, Schools, and Neighborhoods Board on Children, Youth, and Families Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. NAS 18-08/SKF between the National Academy of Sciences and the Strategic Knowledge Fund, a partnership of the Foundation for Child Development and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, and Grant No. 208.0148 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Annie E. Casey Foundation. The Strategic Knowledge Fund is a partnership between the W.K. Kellogg Foundation and the Foundation for Child Development created to fund projects that increase knowledge about children, birth to eight years old and their families, particularly children who are at risk for poor educational outcomes. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organiza- tions or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15013-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15013-2 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2010). Student Mobility: Exploring the Impact of Frequent Moves on Achievement: Summary of a Workshop. A. Beatty, Rapporteur. Committee on the Impact of Mobility and Change on the Lives of Young Children, Schools, and Neighborhoods. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern - ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem - bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis - ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro - viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON THE IMPACT OF MOBILITY AND CHANGE ON THE LIVES OF YOUNG CHILDREN, SCHOOLS, AND NEIGHBORHOODS Stephen W. Raudenbush (Chair), Department of Sociology, University of Chicago A. Wade Boykin, Department of Psychology, Howard University Claudia Jane Coulton, Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, Case Western Reserve University H. Carl Haywood, Vanderbilt University (emeritus) Ann S. Masten, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota Sandra J. Newman, Institute for Policy Studies, Johns Hopkins University Mariajosé Romero, National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University Russell W. Rumberger, Gervirtz Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara Mary Ellen O’Connell, Project Director Alexandra Beatty, Rapporteur Taniesha Woods, Senior Program Officer Mary Ann Kasper, Senior Program Assistant v

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BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES Bernard Guyer (Chair), Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Jane D. Brown, School of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Linda Marie Burton, Sociology Department, Duke University Angela Diaz, Department of Pediatrics and Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine Gary W. Evans, Department of Human Development, Cornell University Christine C. Ferguson, School of Public Health and Health Services, George Washington University Sherry A. Glied, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University William T. Greenough, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois–Champaign Ruby Hearn, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (emeritus), Princeton, New Jersey Michele D. Kipke, Saban Research Institute, University of Southern California, and Children’s Hospital, Los Angeles Betsy Lozoff, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan Pamela Morris, Policy Area on Family Well-Being and Children’s Development, MDRC, New York Charles A. Nelson, Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, and Children’s Hospital, Boston Patricia O’Campo, University of Toronto and Centre for Research on Inner City Health, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto Frederick P. Rivara, Schools of Medicine and Public Health, University of Washington, and Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle John R. Weisz, Judge Baker Children’s Center and Harvard Medical School Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University Michael Zubkoff, Department of Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School Rosemary Chalk, Board Director Wendy Keenan, Program Associate vi

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Acknowledgments T his workshop summary is based on the discussion at a workshop convened by the Board on Children, Youth, and Families June 29- 30, 2009, and planned by the Committee on the Impact of Mobility and Change on the Lives of Young Children, Schools, and Neighborhoods. The committee members identified presenters, organized the agenda, made presentations, and facilitated discussion, although they did not par- ticipate in the writing of this report. This summary reflects their diligent efforts, the excellent presentations by other experts at the workshop, and the insightful comments of the many workshop participants. The workshop was funded by the Strategic Knowledge Fund, a part - nership of the Foundation for Child Development and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, and the Annie E. Casey Foundation. The interest and support of Ruby Takanishi, president of the Foundation for Child Development, and Cindy Guy, associate director for policy research at the Annie E. Casey Foundation, are much appreciated. This summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsive- ness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the follow - vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ing individuals for their review of this report: Martha J. Cox, Center for Developmental Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Lisa A. Gennetian, Economic Studies, The Brookings Institution; Arthur J. Reynolds, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota; and Russell W. Rumberger, Gevirtz Graduate School of Education, University of California at Santa Barbara. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Aletha Huston, Human Development and Family Sciences, University of Texas. Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution.

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Residential Mobility, 3 School Mobility, 4 Developmental Perspective, 5 2 WHICH CHILDREN ARE MOST AFFECTED BY MOBILITY? 9 Research Overview, 9 National Picture, 13 Focusing on Place, 16 North Carolina, 16 Florida, 18 New York City, 21 Patterns of Residential Mobility, 23 Urban Homelessness, 23 Rural Poverty, 26 Neighborhood Contexts, 29 Discussion, 29 3 METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES 33 Isolating the Effects of Mobility on Individuals and Schools, 33 Seeking Causality, 35 4 POLICY AND PROGRAMMATIC RESPONSES 41 Policy Perspectives, 41 ix

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x CONTENTS Housing Policy, 42 Education Policy, 44 Programmatic Responses, 46 Advocacy and Community Action, 46 A School District Addresses Student Mobility, 47 State Support for Highly Mobile Families, 48 Supporting Mobile Children in Military Families, 50 5 DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 53 Research Issues, 54 Longitudinal and Early Childhood Data Sets, 55 Using Qualitative Research, 56 Using Administrative Data, 57 Evaluating Interventions That Aim to Reduce Mobility, 59 Concluding Thoughts, 60 REFERENCES 63 APPENDIxES A Workshop Agenda and Participants 67 B Selected Bibliography on Student Mobility 77