Promoting Chemical Laboratory Safety and Security in Developing Countries

Committee on Promoting Safe and Secure Chemical Management in Developing Countries

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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Promoting Chemical Laboratory Safety and Security in Developing Countries Committee on Promoting Safe and Secure Chemical Management in Developing Countries Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropri- ate balance. This study was funded under grant number S-LMAQM-08-CA-140 from the United States Department of State. The opinions, findings and conclusions stated herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15041-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15041-8 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap. edu. Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding en- gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Coun- cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON PROMOTINg SAFE AND SECuRE CHEMICAL MANAgEMENT IN DEvELOPINg COuNTRIES Ned D. Heindel (Chair) Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA Charles Barton, Independent Consultant, San Ramone, CA Janet S. Baum, Independent Consultant, University City, MO Apurba Bhattacharya, Texas A&M University, Kingsville Charles P. Casey, University of Wisconsin, Madison Mark C. Cesa, INEOS USA, LLC, Naperville, IL M. Iqbal Choudhary, University of Karachi, Pakistan Robert H. Hill, Battelle Memorial Institute, Atlanta, GA Robin M. Izzo, Princeton University, NJ Russell W. Phifer, WC Environmental, LLC, West Chester, PA Mildred Z. Solomon, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA James M. Solyst, ENVIRON, Arlington, VA usha Wright, O’Brien & Gere, Syracuse, NY Patrick J. Y. Lim, University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines Staff Dorothy Zolandz, Director, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Kathryn Hughes, Program Officer Tina M. Masciangioli, Responsible Staff Officer Sheena Siddiqui, Research Assistant Jessica Pullen, Administrative Coordinator, through May 2010 Lynelle vidale, Senior Program Assistant, through March 2010 Norman grossblatt, Senior Editor 

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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOgY Ryan R. Dirkx, (Co-chair), Arkema, Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania C. Dale Poulter, (Co-chair), University of Utah, Salt Lake City Zhenan Bao, Stanford University, California Robert g. Bergman, University of California, Berkeley Henry Bryndza, E. I. Du Pont De Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware Emily Carter, Princeton University, New Jersey Pablo g. Debenedetti, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey Carol J. Henry, George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, Washington, District of Columbia Charles E. Kolb, Aerodyne Research, Inc, Billerica, Massachusetts Josef Michl, University of Colorado, Boulder Mark A. Ratner, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois Robert E. Roberts, Institute for Defense Analyses, Washington, District of Columbia Darlene Solomon, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, California Erik J. Sorensen, Princeton University, New Jersey William C. Trogler, University of California, San Diego Staff Dorothy Zolandz, Director Amanda Cline, Administrative Assistant Kathryn Hughes, Program Officer Tina M. Masciangioli, Senior Program Officer Ericka M. Mcgowan, Program Officer Sheena Siddiqui, Research Assistant i

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following for their review of the report: Asad Abidi, University of California, Los Angeles Mukund Chorghade, Chorghade Enterprises, Natick, Massachusetts Peter Dorhout, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Kenneth Fivizzani, Independent Consultant, Naperville, Illinois Alastair Hay, University of Leeds, United Kingdom Claude Lucchesi, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois Richard Niemeier, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio Khalil Qureshi, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan Elsa Reichmanis, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Carolyn Ribes, Dow Benelux B.V., Terneuzen, Belgium Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or ii

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by R. Stephen Berry, Univer- sity of Chicago, Illinois, and Jeffrey I. Steinfeld, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

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About This Study There is growing concern about the possible use of toxic industrial chemicals or other hazardous chemicals by those seeking to perpetrate acts of terrorism. The U.S. Chemical Security Engagement Program (CSP), funded by the U.S. Department of State and run by Sandia National Labo- ratories, seeks to develop and facilitate cooperative international activities that promote best practices in chemical security and safe management of toxic chemicals, including • partnering with host governments, chemical professionals, and industry to assess and fill gaps in chemical security abroad; • providing technical expertise and training to improve best practices in security and safety among chemical professionals and industry; • increasing transparency and accountability for dangerous chemical materials, expertise, and technologies; and • providing opportunities for collaboration with the international professional chemical community. The Department of State called on the National Academies to assist in the CSP’s efforts to promote chemical safety and security in developing countries.1 More specifically, the National Research Council was asked to perform two main tasks focused on laboratory-scale activities. 1 See Appendix A for the full statement of task. ix

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x ABOUT THIS STUDY 1. Examine the dual-use risks posed by toxic industrial chemicals and other hazardous chemicals in developing countries, particularly in regions where terrorism is on the rise. 2. Provide guidance and produce educational materials on a baseline of practices in the handling and storage of hazardous chemicals required to promote safety and security in their use in the developing world. This report addresses these two tasks: the educational materials de- scribed will be delivered to the sponsors separately from this report. The educational materials will be based on material generated by this current study (mainly Chapters 3 and 4) and derived from the forthcoming revised edition of Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards (The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010). Those materials will be produced upon completion of the current report, and are meant to be used by CSP and similar organizations that are engaged in chemical laboratory safety and security outreach in developing countries. The NRC plans to seek assistance from other organizations such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the Organiza- tion for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, and the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) to review, co-brand, and distribute the materials. The materials will be distributed in print and electronic format, and will be translated into Arabic, French, and Indonesian. Appointed by the National Research Council, the Committee on Pro- moting Safe and Secure Chemical Management in Developing Countries was convened to carry out the task. The 14 expert committee members rep- resent the fields of chemical safety, chemical security, chemical management, environmental health and safety, international chemical exchanges and scientific affairs, organic and pharmaceutical chemistry, industrial hygiene and safety, biological safety and security, toxicology, laboratory design and safety, education and behavioral change, and basic chemical synthesis. They have experience in industrial and academic laboratory-scale activities, and they include researchers who have firsthand experience with the conduct of chemical research in developing countries. The committee held four meet- ings, three of which included data-gathering sessions.2 The committee would especially like to acknowledge the two interna- tional members of the committee, Iqbal Choudhary of Pakistan and Patrick Lim of the Philippines, who traveled very long distances and crossed many time zones to attend the committee meetings. It also thanks the three inter- national guest speakers who made long journeys from developing countries to one of our data-gathering meetings and provided invaluable insight to the committee: 2 See Appendix C for committee member and guest speaker biographical information.

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xi ABOUT THIS STUDY Supawan Tantayanon, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Engida Temechegn, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia Khalid Temsamani, University Abdelmalek Essaadi, Tétouan, Morocco In addition, we thank Mohammad El-Khateeb of Jordan University of Sci- ence and Technology, who joined one meeting via video conference; and Alastair Hay of the University of Leeds, United Kingdom, and Richard W. Niemeier of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio, who had shorter journeys but provided no less valuable insights to the committee. The committee hopes this report will serve the needs of the Department of State and the CSP and the chemical safety and security needs of the larger international chemistry community. The Committee on Promoting Safe and Secure Chemical Management in Developing Countries

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Abbreviations ACC American Chemistry Council ACS American Chemical Society AIHA American Industrial Hygiene Association ASSE American Society of Safety Engineers BCSP Board of Certified Safety Professionals CCS ACS Committee on Chemical Safety CHAS ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety CHO Certified Chemical Hygiene Officer CIH Certified Industrial Hygienist COC Chemical of Concern CSHEMA Campus Safety Health and Environmental Management Association CSJ Chemical Society of Japan CSO Chemical Safety Officer CSP Chemical Security Engagement Program CWC Chemical Weapons Convention FACS Federation of Asian Chemical Societies FASC Federation of African Societies of Chemistry IAC ACS Committee on International Activities ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations IPCS International Program on Chemical Safety IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry IYC 2011 International Year of Chemistry 2011 xiii

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xi ABBREVIATIONS MSDS Materials Safety Data Sheet NAO National adhering organizations NCGC National Core Group in Chemistry NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OPCW Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons PacifiChem International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies PPE Personal protective equipment Responsible Care® Security Code RCSC REACH Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemical Substances SAICM Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management SME Small and Medium-sized Enterprises SOP Safe Operating Procedure SVA Security Vulnerability Assessment UNESCO U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization

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Contents Summary and Recommendations 1 1 Current Patterns of Procurement, use, and Distribution of Chemicals in Developing Countries 17 The Global Business of Chemistry, 18 Chemical Supply, 20 Chemical Distribution, 22 Laboratory-Scale Use of Chemicals, 26 2 Chemical Laboratory Safety and Security Outreach in Developing Countries 27 Expanding Current CSP Partnerships, 28 Potential New Organizational Relationships and Approaches to Outreach in Developing Countries, 33 Additional Considerations for Enhancing Safety and Security Training, 37 3 guidelines for Establishing a Laboratory Chemicals Safety and Security Program 41 Whose Job Is It? Responsibility for Laboratory Safety and Security, 41 10 Steps to Establish an Effective Chemical Laboratory Safety and Security Program, 43 x

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xi CONTENTS Special Concerns, 47 Guidelines for Facility Access and Use, 48 Procedures for Managing and Working with Chemicals of Concern, 52 4 Compliance with Safety and Security Rules, Programs, and Policies 61 Components of a Good Compliance System, 61 Approaches to Fostering Compliance, 65 Appendixes A Statement of Task 69 B Meeting Agenda 71 C Committee and Guest Speaker Information 75 D Examples of Chemicals of Concern 85 E Sample Safety, Health, and Environment Policy Statement 95 F Sample Forms for Chemical Handling and Management 97 G Compliance Forms 105