2
Chemical Laboratory Safety and Security Outreach in Developing Countries

Many national and international chemical societies have a strong interest in chemical safety and security, and some already have internal committees for safety in place. Those societies in developing countries share many concerns regarding safety and security in laboratories with more developed countries. They all attempt to develop materials to promote safety but often in isolation from other chemical societies. The U.S. Chemical Security Engagement Program (CSP) plays an important role in fostering interactions with and between chemical organizations that focus on safety and security issues.

The first CSP outreach was a security and safety workshop held in 2007 at the 12th Asian Chemical Congress in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in partnership with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the Federation of Asian Chemical Societies (FACS), and the Malaysian Institute of Chemistry (Institut Kimia Malaysia). Since then, the CSP has partnered with many other organizations at the international, regional, national, and local level to conduct similar workshops and training sessions in additional countries, including the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Jordan, and Egypt. There are, however, ways the CSP might expand and build on the work of current partner organizations, and build new relationships to better leverage its current outreach. This chapter discusses some of the current CSP partners and outreach efforts, recommends opportunities for expanding those relationships and fostering new ones, and some potential new approaches to outreach in developing countries.



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2 Chemical Laboratory Safety and Security Outreach in Developing Countries Many national and international chemical societies have a strong interest in chemical safety and security, and some already have internal committees for safety in place. Those societies in developing countries share many concerns regarding safety and security in laboratories with more developed countries. They all attempt to develop materials to promote safety but often in isola- tion from other chemical societies. The U.S. Chemical Security Engagement Program (CSP) plays an important role in fostering interactions with and between chemical organizations that focus on safety and security issues. The first CSP outreach was a security and safety workshop held in 2007 at the 12th Asian Chemical Congress in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in partnership with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the Federation of Asian Chemical Societies (FACS), and the Ma- laysian Institute of Chemistry (Institut Kimia Malaysia). Since then, the CSP has partnered with many other organizations at the international, regional, national, and local level to conduct similar workshops and training sessions in additional countries, including the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Jor- dan, and Egypt. There are, however, ways the CSP might expand and build on the work of current partner organizations, and build new relationships to better leverage its current outreach. This chapter discusses some of the current CSP partners and outreach efforts, recommends opportunities for expanding those relationships and fostering new ones, and some potential new approaches to outreach in developing countries. 

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 PROMOTING CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND SECURITY ExPANDINg CuRRENT CSP PARTNERSHIPS International union of Pure and Applied Chemistry IUPAC is a global organization of more than 50 national adhering or- ganizations (NAOs), and additional associate NAOs, associated organiza- tions, company associates, and affiliated members.1 Typically the different adhering organizations are national scientific or chemical societies, such as the Chemical Society of Ethiopia and the Chemical Society of Pakistan. In the United States, however, the NAO is the U.S. National Academy of Sci- ences. The strategic goals of IUPAC include providing leadership in address- ing global issues in the chemical sciences, emphasizing the needs of chemists in developing countries, and using its global network to contribute to the advancement of chemistry education, which aligns well with CSP efforts to engage chemical professionals on laboratory safety and security. Safety Training Program The IUPAC project most directly related to outreach with respect to chemical laboratory safety and security is the Safety Training Program.2 This unique program enables experts from developing countries to learn about safety and environmental protective measures by visiting and work- ing in chemical plants of IUPAC company associates in the industrialized world. Safety Training Program trainees are (1) professional scientists and engineers who are working at supervisory or managerial levels in chemical companies, government or scientific institutions, or universities; (2) engaged in aspects of safety, security, or environmental protection or in the teaching of these fields; and (3) are influential in their workplaces and their home countries. Trainees spend two to four weeks in intensive “shadowing” of health, safety, and environmental professionals in their host companies, learning state-of-the-art techniques and practices and participating in meetings and decision-making functions. They write reports on their training and plans for implementation of new initiatives at home, and have the opportunity to participate in regular Safety Training Program workshops at IUPAC congresses. In the workshops, trainees share best practices, present their work, and hear invited speakers on topics of concern in health, safety, and the environment. In the future, the CSP could collaborate with the Safety Training Program to make these workshops more than presentations and 1 For more information, see http://www.iupac.org (accessed October 26, 2009). 2 For more information, see http://www.iupac.org/standing/coci/safety-program.html (ac- cessed October 26, 2009).

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 OUTREACH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES provide training in exhibiting and demonstrating equipment for safety and security. Educational Resources on the Web IUPAC has a variety of resources on its Web site that are relevant to lab- oratory safety and security, including teaching modules and other resources on toxicology,3 environmental monitoring, and its collaboration with the U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) on the Global Microscience Project.4 The IUPAC project Multiple Uses of Chemicals, in conjunction with the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), has developed educational material for chemists and chemistry teachers about the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).5 The materials are available on the Internet,6 and discuss beneficial uses of chemicals, and possible misuses of chemicals, including the production of chemical weapons. The International Year of Chemistry in 2011 The International Year of Chemistry (IYC) in 2011 came about through a partnership between IUPAC and UNESCO.7 Regional, national, and local chemical societies; organizations; teaching and research institutions; gov- ernments; and industry will collaborate in a series of events to celebrate the accomplishments and future of chemistry during IYC 2011. While issues of safety and security are not included in the specific goals of IYC 2011 celebrations, the increased attention that will be given to chemistry topics during IYC 2011 provides an excellent opportunity for outreach on chemical laboratory safety and security, including the misuses of chemicals. IuPAC Partners Members of IUPAC are representatives of many other organizations, some of which could facilitate the development of an organizational net- work focused on safety and security. The fellows of the IUPAC Safety Training Program can be approached to assist in dissemination and use of 3 For more information, see http://www.iupac.org/diisions/VII/VII.C./index.html (accessed October 26, 2009). 4 For more information, see http://www.iupac.org/publications/ci/00/03/smallscale chemistry.html (accessed October 26, 2009). 5 Alastair Hay, co-chair of the project, presented to the committee on June 4, 2009. 6 For more information, see http://multiple.kcs.ca/ (accessed October 26, 2009). 7 For more information, see http://www.chemistry0.org (accessed October 26, 2009).

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30 PROMOTING CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND SECURITY educational materials. The fellows were chosen for their ability to interact effectively in their places of employment, their scientific societies, and local, regional and national governments to improve health, safety, and environ- mental practices in their home countries. Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons The OPCW8 is the implementing body for the CWC, which underlies the outreach efforts of the CSP. There are 188 nations (98 percent of the global population) that have joined the OPCW. The OPCW maintains a Web site with a list of scheduled chemicals,9 an important resource for instructors and other persons responsible for maintaining laboratory safety and security. OPCW provides funding for its officers to speak at important conferences to introduce the OPCW and CWC to encourage involvement by the chemical community. The OPCW also provides grants for instrumen- tation and research to foster the peaceful applications of chemistry. OPCW has collaborated with IUPAC to hold two workshops on the CWC. The workshops have helped to supply OPCW with information on new and emerging science and technology related to the synthesis of mul- tiple-use chemical materials and to the detection, analysis, and destruction of chemical weapons. In addition, as mentioned earlier, OPCW has part- nered with IUPAC on chemical education and outreach aimed at informing students about chemical weapons and the CWC.10 American Chemical Society The American Chemical Society (ACS) is the world’s largest scientific society, with more than 154,000 members, 19,000 of whom are in over 100 countries outside the United States. ACS sponsors or promotes many international activities, such as joint conferences with chemical societies in other countries. For example, the International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies (PacifiChem) is a weeklong scientific meeting, held every five years in conjunction with ACS counterparts in Australia, Canada, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, and China. ACS activities are driven largely by members through its committees, two of which are described below. 8 For more information, see http://www.opcw.org/ (accessed October 26, 2009). 9 For more information, see https://apps.opcw.org/cas/ (accessed October 26, 2009). 10 For more information, see http://www.iupac.org/web/ins/00-0--00 (accessed Oc- tober 26, 2009).

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3 OUTREACH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ACS Committee on International Activities The ACS Committee on International Activities (IAC), supported by the staff in the Office of International Activities, helps scientists and en- gineers worldwide to communicate and collaborate. The IAC is active in conferences, symposia, and workshops around the globe; other work includes facilitating visas for travel to the United States, providing interna- tional news to the scientific community, and operating a free online network for scientists in a number of languages. Laboratory safety and security are not topics of strong interest for this committee, but this could change with increased expressions of interest from ACS members. ACS Committee on Chemical Safety The prime responsibility of the ACS Committee on Chemical Safety (CCS) is the encouragement of safe practices in chemical activities. The CCS serves as a resource for chemical professionals mainly in the United States in providing advice and counsel on the handling of chemicals, and it seeks to ensure safe facilities, designs, and operations by calling attention to potential hazards and stimulating education in safe chemical practices. The CCS also provides advice to other ACS units on matters related to chemical safety and health. A variety of publications are available free on its Web site.11 ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety The ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety (CHAS) is an inter- national organization with about 1,300 members dedicated to advancing health and safety in the chemical enterprise.12 CHAS provides technical programming at ACS national and regional meetings, produces its own journal (Journal of Chemical Health and Safety), and has an active Listserv to benefit members worldwide who have questions about safety issues. It has members in a number of developing countries who occasionally post questions on the Listserv. Safety materials produced by ACS and its committees and divisions are available in English and sometimes in other languages. For example, the publication Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories (SACL) is used widely abroad; the Spanish translation is used in South and Central Amer- ica. The CCS also has several members who have engaged in safety training 11 For more information, see http://membership.acs.org/C/CCS (accessed October 26, 2009). 12 For more information, see http://membership.acs.org/c/chas/default.htm (accessed October 26, 2009).

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3 PROMOTING CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND SECURITY in developing countries; however, their initiatives are not tied directly to the CCS or CHAS. In addition, the CCS has recently appointed a liaison to the IAC; this may provide for future collaboration between the committees on chemical safety practices internationally. Other ACS Opportunities ACS has the potential to play more of a leadership role in developing better communication on safety and security between chemical societies throughout the world. ACS has enormous resources, especially its strong volunteer committees that could be expanded to facilitate worldwide com- munication between chemical organizations. The ACS and IUPAC are especially valuable partners for CSP in helping to create networks of chemical safety professionals, inasmuch as each or- ganization has a global reach and effective contacts with national chemical societies and related organizations around the world. Regional Organizations Regional organizations, such as the Arab Union of Chemists, Federa- tion of Asian Chemical Societies, and the Federation of African Societies of Chemistry (FASC), are key CSP partners in outreach to developing coun- tries. For example, the president of FASC, Temechegen Engida, spoke to the committee on his collaboration with the Pan African Chemistry Network to conduct a recent survey of students and instructors at his university and other institutions in Africa. Clear indications for the need for improvements in instruction, equipment, procedures, and infrastructure were found. As a result, FASC plans a series of major events across Africa in 2011, in conjunction with IYC 2011, to promote safe practices and applications of chemistry in laboratories, chemical production, and end uses. Major resource needs were also identified, including funding, communication infrastructure, trained personnel, and institutions willing to commit to the regional efforts. The American Chemistry Council The American Chemistry Council (ACC) is the trade association for the U.S. chemical industry and has global influence because of the international nature of the chemical industry. ACC is well known for its Responsible Care® program,13 which is a global initiative established in 1988 focused 13 Formore information, see http://www.americanchemistry.com/s_responsiblecare/sec. asp?CID=&DID= (accessed October 27, 2009).

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33 OUTREACH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES on advancing safe and secure management of chemical products and pro- cesses. Currently, 53 national chemical industry associations participate in the program. In 2001, the Responsible Care® Security Code (RCSC) was added to the program. The RCSC requires member companies to conduct comprehensive security vulnerability assessments, implement security en- hancements, and obtain independent verification that those enhancements have been made. It also requires companies to create security management systems, which are documented to provide quality control and assurances. All the details of the RCSC are posted on the ACC Web site and are publicly available, including detailed guidance for implementing it. The tools on the Web site are excellent resources for any facility, including an academic laboratory that intends to assess security risks and implement a robust facility security program. Many ACC members are large multinational corporations, and they implement the Responsible Care program globally. Such companies also provide outreach and training for local universities and smaller laborato- ries. The ACC has worked to support the CSP in numerous parts of the world—including Malaysia, the Philippines, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Indone- sia, Vietnam, Thailand, and the United Arab Emirates—over the last three years. It works with local chemical associations to facilitate the develop- ment of safety and security practices tailored to local needs. In addition, the ACC led the development of a safety and security workshop in conjunction with the 10th anniversary of OPCW. POTENTIAL NEW ORgANIZATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND APPROACHES TO OuTREACH IN DEvELOPINg COuNTRIES The CSP is partnering with many organizations, but there is a need to continue to develop new organizational relationships and to create net- works of chemical safety professionals. This section offers guidance on new organizations that the CSP could partner with and new approaches that the CSP could use to better leverage its outreach. International Organizations Among notable organizations that are capable of outreach to develop- ing countries with respect to chemical laboratory safety and security are the International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS)14 and such U.N. organizations as UNESCO. The IPCS INCHEM program, in collaboration with the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, provides 14 For more information, see http://www.inchem.org/ or http://www.who.int/ipcs/en/ (ac- cessed October 26, 2009).

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3 PROMOTING CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND SECURITY resources such as health and safety guides and international chemical safety information cards.15 UNESCO16 has been a sponsor of the IUPAC Safety Training Program, has regional offices throughout the world, and has a long record of support for educational initiatives in the sciences, such as the Global Microscience Project. As mentioned earlier, UNESCO is also a partner with IUPAC in the IYC 2011. The Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM)17 is another initiative, and is implemented through the U.N. En- vironment Programme and the World Health Organization. It is a global policy framework for fostering the sound management of chemicals. The SAICM supports the achievement of the goal agreed on at the 2002 Johan- nesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development: to ensure that by 2020, chemicals are produced and used in ways that minimize substantial adverse effects on the environment and human health. It particularly targets the developing world. The SAICM is still in its formative stages, but it may be useful to monitor its work to judge whether it can play a greater role in promoting safe and secure laboratory practices. The U.N. Industrial Development Organization18 manages a network of cleaner production centers throughout the developing world that have re- sponsibilities beyond chemical production and research; they have influence in their regions with respect to regulations, policy, and training. The centers can be contacted to explore the possibility of collaborating on laboratory safety and security training and education. The International Organization for Chemical Sciences in Development (IOCD) is a U.S.-based nongovernmental organization that supports the sci- ences in developing countries, with a focus on Africa.19 The IOCD believes that increased international collaboration will improve the chemical sci- ences, and in turn, the health and economic status of developing countries. The organization supports symposia, international research sabbaticals, and workshops in laboratory techniques. 15 For more information, see http://www.inchem.org/pages/icsc.html or http://www.cdc.go/ niosh/ipcs/icstart.html (accessed October 26, 2009). 16 F or more information, see h ttp://portal.unesco.org/science/en/e.php-URL_ ID=&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=0.html (accessed October 26, 2009). 17 For more information, see www.saicm.org (accessed October 26, 2009). 18 For more information, see www.unido.org (accessed October 26, 2009). 19 For more information, see www.iocd.org/ision_mission.shtml (accessed October 26, 2009).

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3 OUTREACH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Regional and National Organizations The CSP can play a much greater role in building capacity in develop- ing countries for chemical laboratory safety and security by conducting training programs in collaboration with local or regional chemical societ- ies. Training in developing countries should be arranged with local partner organizations to establish local ownership of the initiatives. The CSP should initiate some programs that focus on motivating institutional leadership. Establishing such relationships with regional and national organizations would enable CSP to increase its impact through organization of more regional conferences. Developed countries in Asia have the potential to serve as excellent regional partners in reaching out to nearby developing countries. For ex- ample, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, largely through India’s national laboratories, has conducted training programs for young scientists in the fundamentals of laboratory health and safety and labora- tory design. The Indian Ministry of Science and Technology also has a Task Force on Green Chemistry, whose mandate includes workshops and interactive sessions for industrial scientists on chemical safety and security. Neither the Indian Chemical Society nor the Chemical Research Society of India has committees on safety and security. The Chemical Society of Japan (CSJ) has a committee on environment and safety issues, some of whose activities are related to chemical and labo- ratory safety. The CSJ holds an annual two-day seminar, “Chemical Safety Schooling,” in which 70 to 90 representatives of industry and institutes participate. The seminar covers potential risks posed by handling chemicals, preventive measures, and official regulations. During its annual meetings, the committee also conducts a symposium related to laboratory safety. In these symposia, information is shared on recent changes in regulations, laboratory incidents and their analysis, improvements, and examples of teaching materials. A visit to a large chemical company is made to observe safety and environmental facilities in a modern industrial laboratory. Pakistan has two professional chemistry organizations, the Chemical Society of Pakistan and the National Core Group in Chemistry (NCGC), which are both generously funded by the government of Pakistan. The NCGC has an extensive training program in chemical laboratory safety that includes the training of chemists and research scholars and the publication of laboratory safety handbooks and pictorial booklets. The Ministry of Environment of Pakistan regularly conducts stakeholder consultations and workshops on the implementation of the SAICM in Pakistan. Another useful resource is alumni associations of U.S. and European universities. For example, members of the alumni association of the United Kingdom’s Imperial College or the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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3 PROMOTING CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND SECURITY alumni association could be approached to find volunteers who could be an advocate for chemical laboratory safety and security. These groups could hold citywide university seminars, workshops, and exhibits in collaboration with the CSP and experts from developed countries, institutes, and vendors of safety equipment. Professional Organizations Three safety-related professional organizations in the United States could be beneficial partners in outreach to developing countries. They can be approached to provide forums for networking, administering compre- hensive education programs, and serving as a bridge between scientists and chemical safety officers. Similar organizations that provide comparable information exist in many other countries, such as the British Occupational Hygiene Society. • The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA)20 is an orga- nization of professionals dedicated to the anticipation, recognition, evalu- ation, and control of safety, health, and environmental factors that arise in the workplace and could result in injury, illness, or impairment or affect the well-being of workers and members of the community. The AIHA In- ternational Affairs Committee addresses such international issues as con- tinuing education, membership, publications, laboratory accreditation, and humanitarian outreach. AIHA works to establish associations and graduate programs in industrial hygiene in developing countries, and it sponsors symposia, roundtables, and forums on international occupational hygiene issues. It also establishes informational Web sites and Listservs. AIHA has local chapters outside the United States, including a particularly active one in the Middle East Arabian Gulf region. • The American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE)21 is a profes- sional safety organization that serves safety, health, and environmental professionals around the globe. ASSE provides technical information and global and local networking and cooperates with numerous safety, health, and environmental organizations worldwide. ASSE has members in over 64 countries, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Australia, Nigeria, Papua-New Guinea, the United Kingdom, Ecuador, and Egypt. • The Campus Safety Health and Environmental Management Asso- ciation (CSHEMA)22 “provides information sharing opportunities, continu- ing education, and professional fellowship to people with environmental 20 For more information, see www.aiha.org (accessed October 26, 2009). 21 For more information, see www.asse.org (accessed October 26, 2009). 22 For more information, see www.cshema.org (accessed October 26, 2009).

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3 OUTREACH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES health and safety responsibilities in the education and research communi- ties.” CSHEMA’s vision is to have “excellent health, safety, and environ- mental protection understood and integrated into teaching, research, and service throughout the educational and research communities.” Member- ship in CSHEMA is on an institutional basis. Membership fees are based on the number of employees working in the institution’s health and safety group. Fees are waived for colleges and universities in developing nations. CSHEMA presents “webinars” on emerging issues, holds regional confer- ences, and has an annual international conference on campus health and safety. The CSHEMA Forum provides for online networking, sharing of training materials, posting questions, and other opportunities for collabo- ration among individuals interested in health, safety, and environmental protection. u.S. government Agencies Many agencies in the United States engage in activities that could bene- fit the CSP. For example, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) provides materials and information of interest to persons working on improving chemical laboratory safety and security practices, such as School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide.23 A primary focus of its efforts is dual-use chemicals, and its Web site provides information and resources on chemical safety, evaluation of workplace hazards, and train- ing. Another example is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Through its rules on Good Laboratory Practices and Good Manufacturing Practices,24 the FDA oversees the safety, traceability of production, quality assurance, and others aspects of U.S. pharmaceutical companies operating inside and outside the United States. ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ENHANCINg SAFETY AND SECuRITY TRAININg Private-Public Partnerships The entire chemical industry is increasingly affected by global condi- tions. The United Nations, the European Union (EU), and several countries have enacted laws or developed guidance related to the safe and secure management of chemicals. Their initiatives have a global impact. A no- 23 For more information, see http://www.cdc.go/niosh/docs/00-0/pdfs/00-0.pdf (accessed January 22, 2010). 24 See the FDA website for more information: http://www.fda.go/Drugs/Guidance ComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm0.htm (accessed January 26, 2010).

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3 PROMOTING CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND SECURITY table example is the EU chemical law REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemical Substances), which requires companies that wish to do business in the EU to submit chemical informa- tion and assessments.25 In response to REACH and other initiatives with a global impact, the private sector has sought to improve communication and coordina- tion within the industry and with government agencies and academia. The global chemical industry is interconnected through the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA), which serves as the “world-wide voice of the chemical industry, representing chemical manufacturers and producers all over the world.” ICCA members—over 50 national chemical manufacturing associations—also adhere to the Responsible Care program. A key element of Responsible Care is the establishment of partnerships and alliances, among global and regional institutions and at the local level. An example of a successful private-public partnership mentioned earlier in this chapter is ACC’s support of the CSP. Companies that care about safety and security are always looking for well-trained employees. That presents an opportunity for academic institu- tions to foster strong safety and security practices and build relationships with industry to ensure employment of their students, and enhance the culture of safety and security compliance within academic laboratories. In addition, industry and trade organizations in developing nations (such as the Chemical Industries Association of the Philippines and the Plastics and Chemicals Industries in Australia) can help the CSP coordinate with universities and professional societies in their regions to harmonize safety and security controls. Certification and Training Programs The CSP may wish to take advantage of existing training programs for chemical safety professionals, such as the following: • The Certified Safety Professional Program of the Board of Certified Safety Professionals (BCSP) in Savoy, Illinois, is designed to recognize the qualifications and experience of safety professionals.26 Applicants must ap- ply to BCSP and be approved to sit for examinations. Requirements include a college degree (bachelor’s in any field or associate’s in a safety-related field) and professional employment in which the primary function is safety 25 See the European Chemicals Agency Web site for more information about implementation of REACH: http://echa.europa.eu/home_en.asp (accessed January 22, 2010). 26 For more information, see www.bcsp.org (accessed October 26, 2009).

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3 OUTREACH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (prevention of harm to humans and the environment). Examinations are offered in the United States and abroad. • The National Registry of Certified Chemists-Certified Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO) program is designed primarily for those who are responsible for laboratory safety in their institutions or organizations.27 Because U.S. regulations require the appointment of a CHO for a labora- tory facility to comply with requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration,28 the program is designed largely for U.S. labora- tory personnel; however, it can be taken by others. Requirements include education and experience in chemical safety. • The American Board of Industrial Hygiene-Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH) Program is designed for professionals who are involved in ensuring the health and well-being of workers and their communities. Typically, they are involved in evaluating the health effects of chemicals in a workplace or community. Most CIHs are in the United States and Canada. The certification is focused on the science and art of recognition, evaluation, and control of safety, health, and environmental factors in the workplace that may result in injury, illness, or impairment, or otherwise affect the well-being of workers and members of the surrounding commu- nity. The technical knowledge tested includes: basic sciences; occupational diseases, toxicology, and health hazards; and work environments, principles of investigation methods, ethics, risk communication, guidelines, and stan- dards. CIH certification also means that the professionals have skills in data management and integration, emergency response, hazard evaluation (instrumentation, sampling methods and techniques, and analytical chem- istry), and hazard control (engineering, personal protective equipment, and administration). International Standards The ISO (International Organization for Standardization)29 develops and publishes international standards on scientific and technical issues in industry. Many institutions in developing countries are increasingly seeking to attain certification in international laboratory standards set by ISO, such as the Quality Management Systems standard (ISO 9001) and the general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories 27 For more information, see the NRCC website at www.nrcc.org (accessed October 26, 2009). 28 Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. 29 CFR 1910.1450. http://www.osha.go/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=standards&p_id=00 (accessed January 22, 2010). 29 For more information, see http://www.iso.org/iso/home.htm (accessed October 26, 2009).

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0 PROMOTING CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND SECURITY (ISO 17025). ISO 9001, for example, sets out eight principles that help guide institutional policies and practices: Principle 1: Customer focus; Principle 2: Leadership; Principle 3: Involvement of people; Principle 4: Process approach; Principle 5: System approach to management; Principle 6: Continual improvement; Principle 7: Factual approach to decision making; and Principle 8: Mutually beneficial supplier relationships. Security is not addressed in any of the standards focused on chemi- cal laboratory operations. The CSP and partnering organizations, such as IUPAC and ACS, should press the ISO to develop new standards that ad- dress chemical security, which could raise awareness and drive adoption of chemical laboratory security practices in developing countries.