The geographical sciences recognize that vulnerabilities are dynamic across space and time. Opportunities to expand our understanding of the changing patterns of vulnerability in response to environmental change are most likely to come through research focused on underexamined contexts and through research that looks for patterns and processes across geographical spaces and scales. Advances in our understanding are most likely to be achieved through investigations that examine issues of resilience, sustainability, and adaptation at local scales, and their relationships to larger scale processes.
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3 How Are Climate and Other Environmental Changes Affecting the Vulnerabilities of Coupled Human–Environment Systems? ."
Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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As of 2013, the National Science Education Standards have been replaced by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), available as a print book, free PDF download, and online with our OpenBook platform.
The NGSS offer a detailed description of the key scientific ideas and practices that all students should learn by the time they graduate from high school. The standards are based largely on the 2011 National Research Council report A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas.