FIGURE 7.4 Refugees and displaced people from the former Yugoslavia since 1991. There have been nearly 800,000 people who have left the former Yugoslavia since 1991. SOURCE: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

FIGURE 7.4 Refugees and displaced people from the former Yugoslavia since 1991. There have been nearly 800,000 people who have left the former Yugoslavia since 1991. SOURCE: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

with them to work for improved living and working conditions. The ethnic composition of a migrant’s receiving community affects not only identity but also the degree of segregation among different groups and differences in income levels. Musterd et al. (2008), using longitudinal disaggregate data (1995-2002) from Statistics Sweden, discovered that whereas living in a neighborhood with high concentrations of co-ethnics is initially a boon to migrant incomes, such clustering can soon become a disadvantage. Moreover, the employment status of neighbors from other ethnic groups can have an impact, which is often positive if neighbors are employed but negative if they are not. Additional studies along these lines can identify which characteristics of the local residential environment matter most to migrant outcomes and to the receiving community as a whole.

Where are the greatest points of vulnerability in the transportation network and what are the implications of disruptions at those points of vulnerability?

Mobility depends on integrated, well-maintained transportation networks. Although transportation networks have become denser in many parts of the world,



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