NOAA’s Education Program

Review and Critique

Committee for the Review of the NOAA Education Program

John W. Farrington and Michael A. Feder, Editors

Board on Science Education

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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NOAA’s Education Program Review and Critique Committee for the Review of the NOAA Education Program John W. Farrington and Michael A. Feder, Editors Board on Science Education Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. DG133R07CN0261 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15123-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15123-6 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2010). NOAA’s Education Program: Review and Critique. Committee for the Review of the NOAA Education Program. J.W. Farrington and M.A. Feder, Editors. Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE FOR THE REVIEW OF THE NOAA EDUCATION PROGRAM JOHN W. FARRINGTON (Chair), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and University of Massachusetts Dartmouth JAMES M. COLEMAN, Coastal Studies Institute, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College JANET HUSTLER, Partnership for Student Success in Science (PS3), Synopsys, Inc. KIM A. KASTENS, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University GORDON KINGSLEY, School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology KEVIN KLOESEL, College of Atmospheric and Geographic Sciences, University of Oklahoma FRANCES LAWRENZ, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Minnesota GEORGE L. MATSUMOTO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute BRETT D. MOULDING, Utah Partnership for Effective Science Teaching and Learning FRANK E. MULLER-KARGER, College of Marine Science, University of South Florida LAURA MURRAY, Center for Environmental Science, University of Maryland RAJUL PANDYA, University Cooperation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO CRAIG STRANG, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley CLARICE YENTSCH, Oceanographic Center, Nova Southeastern University MICHAEL A. FEDER, Study Director CLAUDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer REID SCHWEBACH, Program Officer HEIDI A. SCHWEINGRUBER, Deputy Director, Board on Science Education REBECCA KRONE, Program Associate PATRICIA HARVEY, Senior Program Assistant (until July 2009) WUNIKA MUKAN, Program Assistant (until December 2009) MIRIAM QUINTAL, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow (until June 2009) v

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BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION HELEN R. QUINN (Chair), Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University PHILIP BELL, Learning Sciences, University of Washington WILLIAM BONVILLIAN, Washington, DC, Office, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN BRANSFORD, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Washington ADAM GAMORAN, Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin–Madison JERRY P. GOLLUB, Natural Sciences and Physics Departments, Haverford College JANET HUSTLER, Partnership for Student Success in Science (PS3), Synopsys, Inc. FRANK KEIL, Morse College, Yale University BRETT D. MOUDLING, Utah Partnership for Effective Science Teaching and Learning CARLO PARRAVANO, Merck Institute for Science Education, Merck & Co., Inc. SUSAN R. SINGER, Department of Biology, Carleton College JAMES P. SPILLANE, Department of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University* CARL E. WIEMAN, Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative, University of British Columbia WILLIAM B. WOOD, Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder MARTIN STORKSDIECK, Director HEIDI A. SCHWEINGRUBER, Deputy Director MICHAEL A. FEDER, Senior Program Officer MARGRET HILTON, Senior Program Officer REID SCHWEBACH, Program Officer THOMAS E. KELLER, Program Officer REBECCA KRONE, Program Associate KELLY DUNCAN, Senior Program Assistant PATRICIA HARVEY, Senior Program Assistant (until July 2009) WUNIKA MUKAN, Program Assistant (until December 2009) *Until May 2009. vi

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Acknowledgments T he committee and staff thank the many individuals and organiza- tions who assisted us in our work, without whom this study could not have been completed. First, we acknowledge the support of staff in the Office of Education of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), who made themselves readily available to us and provided detailed information about the agency’s education activities and its overarching priorities. They were quick to respond to requests for information, contacted other NOAA staff to help field requests, and were persistent in obtaining the information requested by the committee. Louisa Koch, director, and Christos Michalopoulos, assistant director, were espe- cially helpful. Individually and collectively, committee members benefited from dis- cussions and presentations by the many individuals who participated in our four fact-finding meetings. We are grateful to each of the presenters: Glen Alexander, education coordinator, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve; Eric Bolt, warning coordination meteorologist, National Weather Service; Leon Cammen, director, National Sea Grant College Program; Clarice Fackler, national education liaison, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries; Ron Gird, outreach program manager, National Weather Service; Jennifer Hammond, director, Teacher at Sea Program; Molly Harrison, national education coordinator, National Marine Fisheries Service; Atziri Ibanez, national education coordinator, National Estuarine Research Reserve System; Paula Keener-Chavis, director of education pro- grams, Ocean Exploration and Research Program; Louisa Koch, Office vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS of Education; Michiko Martin, national education coordinator, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries; Laurie McGilvray, chief, National Estuarine Research Reserves; Christos Michalopoulos, Office of Education; Seaberry Nachbar, program manager, B-WET California; Frank Niepold, climate education coordinator; Jacqueline Rousseau, director, Educational Part- nership Program; Sharon Walker, education director, National Sea Grant College Program; and Marci Wulff, Corals Program specialist, Coral Reef Conservation Program. The committee also benefited from the contributions of NOAA staff and staff from partnering agencies who participated in our two site visits, including Tom Ackerman, director of teaching and training and student leadership, Chesapeake Bay Foundation; Jamie Baxter, program director, Chesapeake Bay Trust; Lisa Emanuelson, volunteer monitoring coordinator, Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary; Ellen Fondiler, project manager, Hilton Bialek Biological Science Habitat; Dawn Hayes, education and out- reach coordinator, Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary; Doug Levin, habitat specialist/education coordinator, Chesapeake Bay Office; Sacha Lozano, MERITO program coordinator, Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary; Paul Michel, sanctuary superintendent, Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary; Seaberry Nachbar, program manager, California B-WET; Kenton Parker, education coordinator, Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve; Kevin Schabow, education specialist, Chesapeake Bay Office; Shannon Sprague, environmental literacy manager, Chesapeake Bay Office; and Elena Takaki, program manager, Maryland Department of Natural Resources. The committee also benefited from presentations by other experts knowledgeable about the ocean, atmosphere, climate, and environmental education policy and federal interagency groups. Thanks to Daniel Barstow, president, Challenger Center for Space Science Education; Jim Brey, edu- cation program director, American Meteorological Society; Sue Cook, education director, Consortium for Ocean Leadership; Roberta Johnson, director, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research; Jill Karsten, co- chair, U.S. Climate Change Science Program Education Interagency Work- ing Group; Gerry Lieberman, president, State Environmental Education Roundtable; Frank Niepold, cochair, U.S. Climate Change Science Program Education Interagency Working Group; Jeffrey Reutter, advisory panel member, Ocean Research Resources Advisory Panel; Lisa Rom, cochair, National Science Technology Council Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Sci- ence and Technology; and Jill Sanders, president, National Association of Marine Laboratories. The committee is also grateful to the panel of experts that made pre- sentations on issues of diversity and broadening participation in fields critical to NOAA’s mission. Thanks to Deidra Gibson, assistant professor,

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ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Hampton University; Reza Khanbilvardi, professor, City University of New York; Roger Levin, managing research scientist, American Institutes for Research; Ramon Lopez, professor, University of Texas at Arlington; Eric Riggs, associate professor, Purdue University; and Larry Robinson, profes- sor, Florida A&M University. The committee benefited from the contributions of the authors of four papers whose work informed this report. Ann Brackett, an independent consultant, reviewed several external evaluations of K-12 education proj- ects in NOAA and wrote a summary and critique. Bill Clune, Voss-Bascom professor at the Wisconsin Center for Education Research, applied a com- mon logic model across NOAA’s education programs and discussed inef- ficiencies, redundancies, and implementation challenges in each component of the general model as applied to NOAA education programs. Roger Levin, managing research scientist at the American Institutes for Research; Raquel Gonzalez, doctoral student at the University of Maryland, College Park; and Carmen Martínez-Sussman, doctoral student at the University of California, Santa Cruz, synthesized the research on issues of diversity and broadening participation in fields critical to NOAA’s mission. Lynn Tran, specialist at the Lawrence Hall of Science, synthesized the research on the teaching and learning of ocean, climate, and atmospheric science. Many individuals at the National Research Council (NRC) assisted the committee. The Ocean Studies Board and Board on Atmospheric Science and Climate of the Division on Earth and Life Studies provided essential guidance regarding the composition of the study committee. From the Divi- sion of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Heidi Schweingruber and Martin Storksdieck offered valuable suggestions at our committee meetings, as well as providing helpful comments on drafts of the report. We thank Kirsten Sampson Snyder, who shepherded the report through the NRC review process, Christine McShane, who edited the draft report, and Yvonne Wise for processing the report through final production. We are grateful to Patricia Harvey, who arranged logistics for the first four com- mittee meetings. Finally, we thank Wunika Mukan for her able assistance in arranging the final committee meeting and in preparing numerous drafts and revisions of the report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS this report: Janet Carlson, Executive Director’s Office, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO; Inés Cifuentes, Education and Career Services, American Geophysical Union; Frank Kudrna, Director’s Office, Kudrna and Associates; Cathryn A Manduca, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College; Richard A. McCray, Department of Astrophysics, University of Colorado, Boulder; Vera Michalchik, Center for Technology in Learning, SRI International; William S. Spitzer, Pro- grams, Exhibits, and Planning, New England Aquarium; Elizabeth K. Stage, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley; and Quinton L. Williams, Department of Physics, Atmospheric Science and Geoscience, Jackson State University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. Michael E. Martinez, Department of Education, University of California, Irvine, and W. Carl Lineberger, Department of Chemistry, Uni- versity of Colorado, Boulder, oversaw the review of this report. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institu- tional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution.

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Contents Summary 1 1 Overview and Introduction 11 2 NOAA’s Role in the Education Landscape 29 3 The Education Portfolio and Effective Practices 51 4 Overview and Critique of NOAA’s Education Programs 75 5 Current Evaluation Framework and Existing Evaluation Efforts 111 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 133 References 151 Appendixes A Committee Meeting Public Agendas 161 B Site Visit Agendas 171 C NOAA Education Program Websites 175 D Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff 177 xi

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Tables, Figures, and Boxes TABLES 4.1 Education Programs and Supporting Offices, 76 4.2 Education Program Activities, 79 5.1 Summary of Evidence on Evaluation Practices, 114 5.2 Focus of Evaluation Questions in 18 NOAA Program Evaluation Reports, 115 5.3 Common Logic Model for NOAA Instructional Programs, 123 FIGURES 1.1 NOAA 2008 organization chart, 20 2.1 Relationship among science, environmental education, and NOAA education, 35 2.2 Ph.D.s in atmospheric and ocean sciences earned by U.S. citizens and permanent residents, 46 3.1 Federal 2006 education budget, 55 3.2 NOAA education and outreach budget, 2005-2008, 56 3.3 NOAA 2007 budgets for education, 57 4.1 NOAA offices and sites around the country, 77 4.2 Portfolio balance, 106 5.1 Bennett TOP model, 127 xiii

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xiv TABLES, FIGURES, AND BOXES BOxES 1.1 Communication and Extension Activities, 13 1.2 NOAA’s Definitions of Education, Outreach, Communication, and Extension, 14 1.3 NOAA Line Offices, 19 1.4 Education Mandates, 22 3.1 Environmental Literacy and Workforce Development Outcomes, 59 3.2 “NOAA Science” in the Education Strategic Plan, 63 3.3 North American Association for Environmental Education Guidelines for Initial Preparation of Environmental Educators, 67 3.4 Guidance for Developing Successful Postdoctoral Programs, 74 4.1 Science on a Sphere, 88 4.2 Initiatives Focused on Diversity, 92 5.1 Formative and Summative Evaluation, 112 5.2 Notable Evaluation Strengths, 117 5.3 Notable Evaluation Weaknesses, 118