LDL

Validated tests are available for many uses. More accurate tests are also being developed

Extensive data on LDL, both RCTs and observational studies; repeated use of LDL as a surrogate endpoint

Risk prediction

Data supports use of LDL as a surrogate endpoint for some cardiovascular outcomes for statin drug interventions, but not for all cardiovascular outcomes or other cardiovascular interventions, foods, or supplements

HDL

Validated tests are available for many uses. More accurate tests are also being developed.

Limited data; the biological role of HDL not fully understood

Risk prediction

Current data does not support use as a surrogate endpoint

Beta-carotene

Validated measures of blood serum betacarotene levels are available for many uses

Extensive RCTs and observational trials are available

Uses include a biomarker of intake of fruits and vegetables and an effective intervention to address vitamin A deficiency

Current data does not support use as a surrogate endpoint

NOTE: CRP = C-reactive protein; HDL = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; RCT = randomized controlled trial.



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