Therapy monitoring—the process of determining whether a therapy is having the intended effect on a disease and whether adverse effects arise

Total cholesterol—total amount of cholesterol (both LDL and HDL) in the blood

Toxicology—the science of understanding the effects of chemicals on humans and other organisms

Triglyceride—any of a group of lipids that are esters formed from one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of one or more fatty acids, are widespread in adipose tissue, and commonly circulate in the blood in the form of lipoproteins

Troponin—protein of muscle that together with tropomyosin forms a regulatory protein complex controlling the interaction of actin and myosin and that when combined with calcium ions permits muscular contraction (e.g., of the heart)

True endpoint—the endpoint for which a surrogate endpoint is sought

Tumor response rates—in its most primitive form: tumor shrinkage; defined by a change in tumor bulk; commonly used for making decisions regarding approval of anticancer drugs in the 1970s

Tumor size—inconsistently defined biomarker often used for determining efficacy of cancer therapeutics

Type 2 diabetes—diabetes mellitus of a common form that develops especially in adults and most often in obese individuals and that is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin utilization coupled with the body’s inability to compensate with increased insulin production

Ultracentrifuge—a high-speed centrifuge by means of which large molecules (proteins, nucleic acids) are caused to sediment at practicable rates; used for determination of molecular weights

Utilization—contextual analysis based on the specific use proposed and the applicability of available evidence to this use. This includes a determination of whether the validation and qualification conducted provide sufficient support for the use proposed

Validation—see Analytical validation

Vasodilator—an agent that causes dilation of the blood vessels

Ventricular tachycardia—relatively rapid heart action (whether physiological or pathological) that is associated with the generation of electrical impulses within the ventricles and is characterized by an electrocardiogram having a broad QRS complex. A QRS complex is a measurable characteristic of an electrocardiogram

Viral fitness—refers to the relative replication competence of a virus (e.g., HIV) under defined circumstances; generally assessed in tissue culture systems; its relevance to the clinical situation may be difficult to fully establish

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