cine internship, residency, and chief residency at Columbia University Presbyterian Medical Center. She then completed a clinical and research fellowship in Cardiovascular Diseases at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Dr. Albert also completed a research fellowship in Cardiovascular Epidemiology at that hospital and, during that time, earned an M.P.H. with a concentration in Epidemiology from the Harvard School of Public Health.

Dr. Albert devotes approximately 3 months of the year to clinical duties and 8 months to research activities. Specifically, she is an attending physician for the clinical cardiovascular services and cardiac intensive care units at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. In these roles, her clinical responsibilities include care for the most critically ill cardiovascular patients. Dr. Albert’s research interest concerns the molecular and genetic epidemiology of hemostasis, thrombosis, and inflammation. A central component of her work involves cardiovascular risk prediction using novel biochemical markers in large population-based cohorts. Specifically, Dr. Albert is involved in comparative cardiovascular risk assessment in different race/ethnic groups and international populations as well as work related to the role of chronic psychological stress on cardiovascular outcome. As the Principal Investigator (PI) of a Doris Duke Clinical Scientist Development Award, she piloted a blood collection project to evaluate novel biochemical markers and genetic polymorphisms of cardiovascular risk among geographically diverse Black women living in the United States. Funding from the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation as an Associate Investigator also supports this work. Her research time encompasses developing clinical and epidemiologic cohorts, devising clinical hypotheses, performing data analyses, writing manuscripts, and presenting her findings at numerous venues.

Dr. Albert also teaches Harvard Medical School students and residents at the Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Dr. Albert is actively involved in several professional organizations, including the Association of Black Cardiologists, American Heart Association (AHA), and the American College of Cardiology (ACC).


Fred Apple, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology at the University of Minnesota–Twin Cities. He also serves as the medical director of Clinical Laboratories and the Clinical Chemistry and Toxicology Laboratories at Hennepin County Medical Center. In addition, he serves as the forensic toxicology consultant to the Hennepin County Medical Examiner’s Office. Dr. Apple instructs residents and Fellows during their Chemistry and Toxicology rotations, and directs the Ph.D. Clinical Chemistry Fellowship program. Dr. Apple’s



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement