USAMRIID should continue to set high standards for advancing security, operational, and biosurety measures.
Although USAMRIID has sought to set high standards for biosurety and biosafety, recent examples of laboratory-acquired infections (glanders, tularemia) and breaches in containment (B. anthracis spores) point to human error or deliberate misuse. The committee recommends further formalized training in responsibility and accountability at USAMRIID, similar to that required for NIH-sponsored training programs. The widely used text for this training (On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research [National Academy of Sciences 1995]) includes modules for aspects such as error and negligence in science and conflicts of interest, but can be supplemented with case studies and discussions of relevant issues, such as whistle-blowing, whistle-blower protection, and dual use awareness. The circumstances surrounding the laboratory-acquired infections also should be carefully evaluated to determine what lessons can be learned for preventing future cases.