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E Committee and Staff Biographies Alan Nelson, M.D., Chair, is an internist-endocrinologist who was in private practice in Salt Lake City, Utah until becoming chief executive officer of the American Society of Internal Medicine (ASIM) in 1992. Following the merger of ASIM with the American College of Physicians (ACP) in 1998, Dr. Nelson headed the Washington Office of ACP-ASIM until his semi-retirement in January 2000, and currently serves as Special Advisor to the EVP/CEO of the College. Dr. Nelson was appointed to the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) in May 2000. He was president of the American Medical Association in 1989-90 and was president of the World Medical Association from 1991-1992. Dr. Nelson received his M.D. degree from Northwestern University. He is a Master of the American College of Physicians and a member of the Institute of Medicine. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey, M.D., M.B.A., Co-Vice Chair, is the Senior Vice President at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Prior to joining the foundation, she was the Director of the Institute on Aging, Chief of the Division of Geriatric Medicine, and the Sylvan Eisman Professor of Medicine and Health Care Systems at the University of Pennsylvania as well as the Associate Chief of Staff for Geriatrics and extended care for the Philadelphia Veterans Administration Medical Center. Dr. Lavizzo- Mourey’s research is at the interface of geriatric medicine and health policy, focusing specifically on disease and disability prevention as well as health care issues among persons of color. She earned her medical degree at Harvard Medical School followed by a Masters in Business 406

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407 E: COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES Administration at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School. Dr. Lavizzo-Mourey was formerly the Deputy Administrator of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, now known as the Agency for Heath Care Research and Quality within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. She was also a member of the White House Health Care Policy team. Dr. Lavizzo-Mourey is a Master of the American Col- lege of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine and a member of the Institute of Medicine. Martha N. Hill, Ph.D., Co-Vice Chair, is Interim Dean, Professor, and Di- rector, Center for Nursing Research, at The Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing. Her research has focused on hypertension care and control in urban African American Communities. Dr. Hill has also worked in the area of diabetes control in African Americans, patient and provider compliance with recommendations, strategies for patient education and behavior change, and health promotion and disease prevention. Her most recent work includes research on barriers to hypertension care and con- trol, and dispelling myths about urban Black men with hypertension. Dr. Hill received her master’s degree from the University of Pennsylvania and her doctorate degree in behavioral sciences from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Nursing, the Society of Geriatric Cardiology, the Society for Behavioral Medicine, and was the 1997-1998 president of the American Heart Association. Dr. Hill is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Joseph R. Betancourt, M.D., M.P.H., is Senior Scientist, Institute for Health Policy and Director for Multicultural Education, Multicultural Af- fairs Office at Massachusetts General Hospital-Harvard Medical School. Dr. Betancourt’s primary interests include cross-cultural medicine, minor- ity recruitment into the health professions, and minority health/health policy research. His research has focused on developing a framework for cultural competence as a health policy initiative and quality measure (funded by the Commonwealth Fund), and exploring root causes for ra- cial/ethnic disparities in heath (funded by HCFA and the NIH). Dr. Betancourt is a graduate of the New Jersey Medical School, Cornell Medi- cal Center, and the Harvard School of Public Health. He serves on the New York Academy of Medicine’s Racial/Ethnic Disparities Working Group and the Greater New York Hospital Association’s Steering Com- mittee on Racial/Ethnic Disparities. M. Gregg Bloche, M.D., J.D., is Professor of Law and Co-Director of the Georgetown-Johns Hopkins Joint Program in Law and Public Health. Dr. Bloche writes and lectures on the law, policy, and ethics of health care

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408 UNEQUAL TREATMENT provision. His recent and current scholarship addresses efficiency and fairness issues, the interplay between medical markets and the law, pa- tients’ rights, and socio-economic and racial disparities in medical care. Professor Bloche received a 1997-2000 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Investigator Award in Health Policy Research to support his work on the legal and regulatory governance of managed care organizations. He re- ceived his J.D. from Yale Law School and his M.D. from Yale University School of Medicine. Dr. Bloche has been a consultant to the Institute of Medicine, South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (on hu- man rights in the health sector), the Federal Judicial Center, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the World Health Organiza- tion, and other private and public bodies. He serves on the boards of Physicians for Human Rights, Mental Disability Rights International, the International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, and other non-profit groups. In addition to his academic publications, he has contributed commentaries and op-eds. to nationally broadcast programs. W. Michael Byrd, M.D., M.P.H., is Senior Research Scientist and Instruc- tor in the Division of Public Health Practice at the Harvard School of Pub- lic Health, and Instructor and Staff Physician at Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital. His work focuses on health policies that impact African- American populations and other disadvantaged minorities. He also has expertise in the medical and public health history of African Americans. Dr. Byrd obtained his M.D. degree from Meharry Medical College and M.P.H. from the Harvard School of Public Health. Before entering aca- demic medicine approximately 15 years ago, Dr. Byrd spent a decade in practice as an OB/GYN in Fort Worth, Texas. Dr. Byrd’s previous aca- demic appointments include assistant professorships at Meharry Medical College and SUNY Downstate Medical School, and service as senior attending physician at the teaching hospitals of both medical centers. John F. Dovidio, M.A., Ph.D., is Charles A. Dana Professor, Department of Psychology and Interim Provost and Dean of the Faculty at Colgate University. Dr. Dovidio’s research interests are in stereotyping, preju- dice, and discrimination; social power and nonverbal communication; and altruism and helping. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. in social psychol- ogy from the University of Delaware. Dr. Dovidio shared the 1985 and 1998 Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize with Samuel L. Gaertner for their work on aversive racism and ways to reduce bias. Dr. Dovidio has been Editor of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and he is cur- rently Associate Editor of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and of the American Psychological Society, has been President of the Society for the Psycho-

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409 E: COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES logical Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), Division 9 of APA, and is currently Secretary-Treasurer of the Society for Experimental Social Psychology. José J. Escarce, M.D., Ph.D., is a Senior Natural Scientist at RAND, where he is co-director of the Center for Research on Health Care Organization, Economics and Finance. His research interests and expertise include health economics, managed care, physician behavior, access to medical care, and technological change in medicine. Dr. Escarce has studied racial differences in the utilization of surgical procedures and diagnostic tests by elderly Medicare beneficiaries, and was lead investigator of a study of racial differences in medical care utilization among older persons that was based on the 1987 NMES. He was co-investigator of a study that used interactive videodisc technology to assess the impact of patient race and gender on physician decision making for patients with chest pain. Dr. Escarce is currently working on several projects that address sociodemo- graphic barriers to access in managed care. Dr. Escarce earned a Master’s degree in physics from Harvard University, obtained his medical degree and doctorate in health economics from the University of Pennsylvania, and completed his residency at Stanford University. Sandra Adamson Fryhofer, M.D., M.A.C.P., is a general internist engaged in private practice in Atlanta, Georgia, and the 2000-2001 president of the American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine. She is also a Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine at Emory University School of Medicine. Dr. Fryhofer has spent much of her career as an ad- vocate for general internal medicine with a special interest in women’s health. She can be found throughout the country presenting lectures and serving on panels to offer her expertise on subjects such as menopause, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptives, lipid disorders, and treatment of depression in the primary care settings. Dr. Fryhofer received her medical degree and internal medicine training from Emory Univer- sity School of Medicine, where she is a member of Alpha Omega Alpha honor society. Dr. Fryhofer has been an active member of ACP-ASIM’s Educational Policy Committee, diplomat of the American Board of Inter- nal Medicine and active member of the Subcommittee on Clinical Compe- tence in Women’s Health. Thomas Inui, Sc.M., M.D., is Senior Scholar at the Fetzer Institute. Dr. Inui’s special emphases in teaching and research have included physi- cian/patient communication, health promotion and disease prevention, the social context of medicine, and medical humanities. He completed his M.D. and Masters of Science in Public Health degrees at The Johns Hop- kins University. Previously, he has served as Paul C. Cabot Professor of

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410 UNEQUAL TREATMENT Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Director of the Primary Care Division, and Faculty Dean at Harvard Medical School; Professor of Health and Social Behavior at the Harvard School of Public Health; Medical Director for Research and Education at Harvard Pilgrim Health Care; Division Head for General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington; and Chief of Medicine at the U.S. Public Health Service Indian Hospital in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Dr. Inui is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Jennie Joe, Ph.D., M.P.H., is Professor of Family and Community Medi- cine and Director of the Native American Research and Training Center at the University of Arizona. An anthropologist, her research has focused on the availability and use of services in Indian health clinics, provision of health care for the American Indian disabled, and treatment and preven- tion of diabetes among American Indian youth. Dr. Joe’s most recent work includes cross-cultural perspectives in preventing and controlling cancer, recommendations for health care providers working with native families, and the emergence of a Type II diabetes epidemic in youth. Dr. Joe re- ceived her M.P.H. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of California, Berkeley. Thomas McGuire, Ph.D., is Professor of Health Economics at Harvard Medical School. His work has focused on financing and cost effectiveness of behavioral health care and the industrial organization of health care. His most recent research includes an analysis of physician behavior in man- aged care environments, the use of risk-adjusted premiums to affect incen- tives to managed care plans to supply the appropriate quality of care, and the economics of health care disparities. Dr. McGuire received his Ph.D. in economics from Yale University. He was the recipient of the Kenneth J. Arrow Award for Best Paper in Health Economics in 1997, and received a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Investigator Award in Health Policy in 1994. Dr. McGuire is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Carolina Reyes, M.D., is Vice President of Planning and Evaluation at The California Endowment. Her research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness of programs in health care settings and describing clinical patterns associated with Intimate Partner Violence as well as assessing the quality of maternal health care services. Dr. Reyes is currently a Se- nior Scholar with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. She received her Medical Degree from Harvard Medical School. Dr. Reyes completed her residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology and her fellow- ship in Maternal-Fetal Medicine at the Los Angeles County-USC Women’s and Children’s Hospital. She is an appointed member of the U.S. Secre-

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411 E: COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES tary of Health and Human Services’ Advisory Committee on Infant Mor- tality. She also serves as Senior Medical Advisor for the National Alliance of Hispanic Health. Donald Steinwachs, Ph.D., is Chair and Professor of the Department of Health Policy and Management in The Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public health. He is also Director of The Johns Hopkins University Health Services Research and Development Center. His research includes studies of medical effectiveness and patient outcomes for individuals with medical, surgical, and psychiatric disorders; the impact of managed care on access, quality, utilization, and cost; and developing methods to mea- sure the effectiveness of systems of care. Dr. Steinwachs has particular interest in the role of routine management information systems as a source of data for evaluating the effectiveness and cost of health care. He re- ceived his M.S. in systems engineering from the University of Arizona and his Ph.D. in Operations Research from The Johns Hopkins Univer- sity. Dr. Steinwachs is past President of the Association for Health Ser- vices Research and is the Director of the Johns Hopkins and University of Maryland Center for Research on Services for Severe Mental Illness (SMI). He also serves as a consultant to federal agencies and private founda- tions, and serves on the board of directors of Mathematica Policy Research. Dr. Steinwachs is a member of the Institute of Medicine. David R. Williams, Ph.D., M.P.H., is Professor of Sociology and Senior Research Scientist at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. His prior academic appointment was at Yale University. Dr. Williams is interested in social and psychological factors that affect health, and especially in the trends and the determinants of socioeconomic and racial differences in mental and physical health. He received an MPH from Loma Linda University and a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Michigan. Currently, he is on the editorial board of five scientific jour- nals. He has served on two committees of the National Research Council and as a member of the Department of Health and Human Services Na- tional Committee on Vital and Health Statistics (and chair of its subcom- mittee on Minority and Other Special Populations). He has also held elected positions in professional organizations, such as the Secretary-Trea- surer of the Medical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Asso- ciation. Dr. Williams is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Health Sciences Policy Board Liaison Gloria E. Sarto, M.D., is Professor and past Chair of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN) at the University of New Mexico

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412 UNEQUAL TREATMENT School of Medicine in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Her research interests include studies of genetic disorders and reproductive dysfunction. Dr. Sarto is President of the Society for the Advancement of Women’s Health Research and is on the Professional Advisory Board of the Epilepsy Foun- dation of America. She is a member of the Board of Governors and Board of Directors of the National Center for Genome Resources and chairs the Advisory Council for OB/GYN of the American College of Surgeons. She co-chaired the Panel on Young Adulthood to Perimenopausal Years for the Office of Research on Women’s Health Conference, Opportunities for Research on Women’s Health in 1991, and has participated as a Task Force member in the NIH/ORWH series of workshops, Beyond Hunt Valley, 1996-97. Dr. Sarto was a member of the National Advisory Council on Child Health and Human Development, NIH; the Clinical Research Panel of the National Task Force on the NIH Strategic Plan; and the Committee on Research Capabilities of Academic Departments of Obstetrics and Gy- necology, Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. Additionally, she has been Vice President of the American Board of Ob- stetrics and Gynecology and Director of its Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Dr. Sarto has published extensively on a wide array of women’s health topics, including reproductive medicine and sexually transmitted diseases. She currently is on the editorial boards of Perinatal Press, Journal of Reproductive Medicine, and Women’s Health Letter. IOM Staff Biographies Andrew Pope, Ph.D., is director of the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine. With expertise in physiology and biochemistry, his primary interests focus on environmental and occupational influences on human health. Dr. Pope’s previous research activities focused on the neuroendocrine and reproductive effects of various environmental sub- stances on food-producing animals. During his tenure at the National Academy of Sciences and since 1989 at the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Pope has directed numerous reports; topics include injury control, disability prevention, biologic markers, neurotoxicology, indoor allergens, and the enhancement of environmental and occupational health content in medi- cal and nursing school curricula. Most recently, Dr. Pope directed studies on NIH priority-setting processes, fluid resuscitation practices in combat casualties, and organ procurement and transplantation. Brian D. Smedley, Ph.D., is a Senior Program Officer in the Division of Health Sciences Policy of the Institute of Medicine. Previously, Dr. Smedley served as Study Director for the IOM reports, Promoting Health:

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413 E: COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research, and The Unequal Burden of Cancer: An Assessment of NIH Research and Programs for Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved. Dr. Smedley came to the IOM from the American Psychological Association, where he worked on a wide range of social, health, and education policy topics in his capacity as Director for Public Interest Policy. Prior to working at the APA, he served as a Congressional Science Fellow in the office of Rep. Robert C. Scott (D- VA), sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and as a postdoctoral research fellow in the Education Policy Division of the Educational Testing Service in Princeton, New Jersey. Dr. Smedley received a Ph.D. degree in clinical psychology from the Uni- versity of California, Los Angeles, where he was a Ford Foundation predoctoral and dissertation fellow. On a personal note, Dr. Smedley would like to acknowledge his god- father, Dr. Charles H. Wright of Detroit, Michigan. Dr. Wright was an obstetrician whose tireless efforts to increase awareness of the rich history of African peoples and their descendents in America and throughout the world resulted in the creation of the Charles H. Wright Museum of Afri- can-American History in Detroit, among many other such institutions. Dr. Wright died on March 7, 2002, shortly before this report was released. Adrienne Y. Stith, Ph.D., is a Program Officer in the Division of Health Sciences Policy of the Institute of Medicine. Prior to working at the Insti- tute of Medicine, she served as the James Marshall Public Policy Scholar, a fellowship sponsored by the Society for the Psychological Study of So- cial Issues and the American Psychological Association. She worked in the areas of ethnic health disparities, mental health services for children in schools, and racial profiling. Dr. Stith is also a licensed clinical psy- chologist, receiving her doctorate in 1997 from the University of Vermont. She completed a postdoctoral fellowship in Adolescent Medicine and Pediatric Psychology at the University of Rochester Medical Center, in Rochester, New York. She provided services to children and adolescents in community mental health centers, schools, primary care settings, teen clinics, and foster care, and worked with pregnant teens as well as children with chronic illness. While at the University of Rochester, her research examined stress and social support in children residing in foster care. Daniel J. Wooten, M.D., is Professor of Surgery/Anesthesia, James H. Quillen College of Medicine at East Tennessee State University and Scholar-in-Residence at the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Wooten was Execu- tive Associate Dean for Academic and Faculty Affairs at the Quillen Col- lege of Medicine for approximately five years before he accepted the ap- pointment at the National Academy of Sciences. From 1974 to 1995 Dr.

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414 UNEQUAL TREATMENT Wooten was Chairman, Department of Anesthesiology at the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Vice Chair of the Department of Anesthesiology at UCLA and chief-of-service Department of Anesthe- siology at King/Drew Medical Center in Los Angeles, CA. He has exten- sive experience in inner-city health care delivery systems and the insti- tutional infrastructures necessary to support them. Rural medicine, community health and rural primary care health education have been his most recent challenges in northeast Tennessee at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. Dr. Wooten completed his doctor of medicine de- gree at Meharry Medical College. He served his internship in internal medicine at George W. Hubbard Hospital in Nashville, completed his resi- dency training in anesthesiology and a fellowship in critical care medi- cine at the University of Pittsburgh Health Science Center. Thelma L. Cox is Senior Project Assistant in the Division of Health Sci- ences Policy. During her eleven years at the Institute of Medicine, she has also provided assistance to the Division of Health Care Services and the Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. Ms. Cox has worked on numerous IOM projects, including: Designing A Strategy for Quality Review and Assurance in Medicare; Evaluating the Artificial Heart Program of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Study of FDA Advisory Committees, Federal Regulation of Methadone Treatment; Legal and Ethical Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies; Social and Behavioral Science Base for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Intervention; The Unequal Burden of Cancer: An Assessment of NIH Re- search and Programs for Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Under- served; and, Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter? Ms. Cox has received the National Research Council Recognition Award and has been the recipient of two IOM Staff Achieve- ment Awards.