Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$49.95



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 553


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 552
Patient-Provider Communication: The Effect of Race and Ethnicity on Process and Outcomes of Healthcare Lisa A. Cooper, M.D., M.P.H. and Debra L. Roter, Dr.P.H. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland ABSTRACT Compelling evidence documents racial, ethnic, and social disparities in healthcare in the United States. While many studies have focused on technical aspects of healthcare—including the receipt of certain tests, procedures, and thera- pies—a smaller number of studies have focused on differences in interpersonal aspects of healthcare that may contribute to disparities across a wide range of conditions. Our goal in writing this paper is to further our understanding of ethnic disparities in health outcomes through an investigation of the interpersonal processes related to the provision of healthcare. We have found that an array of social factors in addition to race—including gender, age, literacy, social class, health status, and the normative expectations that guide the therapeutic relation- ship—are not only relevant, but central to an understanding and appreciation of the role of ethnicity in the interpersonal dynamics of healthcare. Consequently, our review places issues of race and its consequence for patient-provider commu- nication within this broadened context. Recent empirical studies of communication reveal interesting and unexpected results. Actual use of patient-centered communication skills identified in audio- tape analysis differs by patient and physician race and ethnicity. However, patient reports of the communication experience are inconsistent with the empirical record, suggesting that both provider beliefs and attitudes towards patients as well as patient expectations and judgments of physicians are in operation. We provide the following considerations for future research. First, more in- depth exploration of social cognitions and stereotyping behavior by patients, phy- 552

OCR for page 552
553 PATIENT-PROVIDER COMMUNICATION sicians, and other healthcare providers is needed. The reciprocal nature of the patient-physician relationship is a critical factor that should be highlighted in future work. Studies of race-concordant, patient-provider relationships will pro- vide opportunities to increase our understanding of the constructs of cultural competence. Inasmuch as physician ethnicity is confounded with age and gender (minority physicians are more likely to be female and younger than white physi- cians), future research will require disentanglement of the complex interactions among patient and physician age, gender, and ethnicity, and their impact on patient-physician communication. Finally, future research should include health- care providers who are not physicians and ethnic minority groups other than African Americans. The challenge in transforming the practice of medicine to more effectively meet the needs of ethnically diverse patients will include the generation of racial and ethnic-neutral social norms regarding patient expectations and judgments of physician conduct, as well as the establishment of medical practice norms that value communication skills, interpersonal sensitivity, and cultural competence. Increasing diversity in the physician workforce will help contribute to a societal norm that does not inherently define “doctor” in gender or race-linked terms, but this will not be sufficient to transform medical practice. Until we have more evi- dence as to the impact of institutional resources in improving cultural compe- tency we must rely on physician training in interpersonal skills that emphasize those aspects of communication identified with documented benefits on patient health (e.g., patient-centeredness) coupled with patient activation and empower- ment strategies as promising vehicles to improve quality of care and outcomes and reduce ethnic disparities in interpersonal aspects of healthcare. INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE OF TOPIC A compelling amount of evidence documents racial, ethnic, and social disparities in healthcare in United States (Ayanian et al., 1993; Blendon et al., 1989; Carlisle, Leake, and Shapiro, 1997; Conigliaro et al., 2000; Escarce et al., 1993; Lee et al., 1997; Makuc, Breen, and Freid, 1999; Wenneker and Epstein, 1989; Whittle et al., 1993). While many studies have focused on technical aspects of healthcare, such as the receipt of cer- tain tests, procedures, and therapies, a smaller number of studies have focused on differences in interpersonal aspects of healthcare. Recent work has pointed to the role of physician bias in understanding ethnic and ra- cial disparities in healthcare (Schulman et al., 1999; van Ryn and Burke, 2000; Weisse et al., 2001). Additionally, patient views about healthcare, including satisfaction, have emerged as important outcomes that differ by race, ethnicity, social class, language, and literacy level (Blendon et al., 1995; Gross et al., 1998; Carrasquillo et al., 1999; Murray-Garcia et al., 2000;

OCR for page 552
554 UNEQUAL TREATMENT Sun et al., 2000; Baker et al., 1996). Moreover, ethnic minority patients, patients with poor health status, older patients, and patients with less than high school education rate their visits with physicians as less partici- patory (Kaplan et al., 1995; Cooper-Patrick et al., 1999). Specifically, re- cent work has shown that African Americans and other ethnic minority patients, in the common race-discordant relationship with their physi- cians, report less involvement in medical decisions, less partnership with physicians, and lower levels of satisfaction with care (Cooper-Patrick et al., 1999; Saha et al., 1999). Continued disparities in healthcare across a wide range of conditions suggest that fundamental components of healthcare delivery, like patient-provider communication, should be fur- ther investigated. Ethnic groups currently defined as minorities are expected to com- prise 40% of the U.S. population by 2035 and 47% by 2050 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1996). Addressing the healthcare needs of an increasingly diverse population has become a very important public health goal (Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research, 1999; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS] Office for Civil Rights, 1998; U.S. DHHS, 1999; U.S. DHHS Office of the Secretary, 1999). Healthcare pro- viders, systems, and policy-makers will need to rise to the challenge of providing care that takes the cultural and linguistic needs of the U.S. population into account. Arthur Kleinman’s seminal article (Kleinman, Eisenberg, and Good, 1978) articulated the importance of culture in healthcare. Culture, de- fined as “the integrated pattern of human behavior that includes thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of a racial, ethnic, religious, or social group” (Cross et al., 1989), is relevant to everyone’s healthcare. However, the importance of race/ethnicity as a critical cultural indicator is perhaps especially salient for ethnic minority patients in the United States, who are almost always in race-discordant relationships with physicians. Cultural competence may be defined as the ability of individuals to establish effective interpersonal and working relationships that supersede cultural differences. At the patient-provider level, it may be defined as a process in which the healthcare provider continuously strives to work effectively within the cultural context of a client, who may be an indi- vidual, a family, or community (Campinha-Bacote, 1999). There are three broad strategic approaches through which multicultural communication can be enhanced: 1) the provision of direct service designed to meet dis- parate language needs (interpreters and linguistic competency in health education materials); 2) the incorporation of cultural homophilly in the provision of care (use of staff who share cultural background, inclusion of

OCR for page 552
555 PATIENT-PROVIDER COMMUNICATION family, inclusion of traditional healers or folk remedies, use of commu- nity health workers); and 3) institutional accommodation (clinic location, hours of operation, physical environment, increasing ability of profession- als to interact effectively within the culture of the patient population) (Brach and Fraser, 2000). Each of these strategies is likely to have an im- pact on the role of patient-provider communication in understanding and eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare. Our goal in writing this paper is to further our understanding of eth- nic disparities in health outcomes through an investigation of the inter- personal processes related to the provision of healthcare. We have found that an array of social factors in addition to race—including gender, age, literacy, social class, and the normative expectations that guide the thera- peutic relationship—are not only relevant, but central to an understand- ing and appreciation of the role of ethnicity in the interpersonal dynamics of healthcare. Consequently, our review has placed issues of race and its consequence for patient-provider communication within this broadened context (Figure 1). FIGURE 1. The effect of race and ethnicity on patient-physician communication.

OCR for page 552
556 UNEQUAL TREATMENT Physician Role Obligations and Medicine’s Unwritten Social Contract It has been argued that the basis of trust between patients and their physicians lies in the physician’s dedication to “universalism,” that is, the responsibility to treat all patients alike without regard to particular at- tributes or ascribed traits (Parsons, 1951). It is reasoned that if patient care is not universalistic, suspicion and caution will prevail over trust and confidence in the patient-physician relationship. Fear that physicians might act upon ageist, class, or racist stereotypes could undermine the fabric of the social contract upon which the therapeutic relationship rests. In light of the significance of potential violations of physician universal- ism, investigation of the association between patient attributes and as- pects of care should be a research priority. However, this has not been the case. There have been relatively few methodologically sound studies de- signed specifically to investigate the role of sociologic factors in medical visits (Greene, Adelman, Charon, and Hoffman, 1986; Gerbert, 1984; Roter, Hall, and Katz, 1988; Roter and Hall, 1992). The Nature and Consequence of Broad Normative Expectations, Bias, and Racial Stereotyping by Providers and Patients There are three mechanisms by which one might hypothesize physi- cian behavior would relate to patient characteristics (Roter and Hall, 1992). First, there may be an unintended association between the care process and patient attributes that is produced by mutual ignorance of social or cultural norms. The marked differences that often exist between physi- cians and their patients (for example, patients who are poor, uneducated, and belong to an ethnic or racial minority group) may lead to very basic communication difficulties. For instance, citing sociolinguistic theorists, Waitzkin (1985) has generalized to the medical context the finding that middle-class subjects tend to be verbally explicit, while working-class sub- jects tend to communicate more implicitly through nonverbal signals. If not attuned to these nonverbal signals, physicians could easily miss or misinterpret patient requests for information or reassurance. A second explanation for an association between patients’ socio- demographic characteristics and the medical care process is that physi- cians may be consciously and quite appropriately addressing the varying responses to illness demanded by socially patterned expectations for care. These needs reflect the diverse attitudes, beliefs, and expectations of the groups to which the patients belong (Fox and Storms, 1981). For instance, in his classic study of ethnicity and pain, Zborowski (1952) found that patients’ interpretation of pain and expectations regarding pain control varied widely across ethnic groups and that members of these groups

OCR for page 552
557 PATIENT-PROVIDER COMMUNICATION communicated these expectations to their physicians. In these instances, effective tailoring of pain management maximized medical care. Finally, it is possible that physicians, like others in our society, are negatively affected by stereotypes. Physicians have generally scored about the same as non-physicians in surveys reflecting attitudes toward the elderly or the poor (Marshal, 1981; Price, Desmond, Synder, and Kimmel, 1988). Further, the range in physicians’ political and ideological beliefs indicates a broad spectrum of response to patient groups (Waitzkin, 1985). Physicians appear to share the same negative stereotypes about physically unattractive people as do others in our society (Nordholm, 1980). Numerous studies indicate that patient race and ethnicity influ- ence physicians’ beliefs about and expectations of patients (Lewis, Croft- Jeffreys, and David, 1990; van Ryn and Burke, 2000; Porter and Beuf, 1994; Schulman et al., 1999). One recent study used survey data from patients and physicians during post-coronary angiogram encounters to examine the effect of patient race and socioeconomic status (SES) on physician per- ceptions of and attitudes towards patients (van Ryn and Burke, 2000). This study showed that even after adjustment for patient age, race, frailty/ sickness, depression, mastery, social assertiveness, and physician charac- teristics, physicians tended to perceive African Americans and members of low and middle SES groups more negatively on a number of dimen- sions than they did whites and upper SES patients. For example, African- American patients were perceived as being less intelligent, more likely to engage in high-risk behavior, and less likely to adhere to medical advice. These ethnic minority patients received lower ratings of affiliation by phy- sicians. Patients in the lowest SES group were also perceived as having more negative personality attributes (lack of self-control, irrationality), less abilities, more negative behavioral tendencies, and fewer role de- mands (van Ryn and Burke, 2000). Patient SES appeared to have an even broader effect on physician perceptions than patient race. These percep- tions could not be completely explained by epidemiologic evidence about the patients’ racial or SES group or from patients’ reports of their actual behaviors and tendencies. Physicians’ negative attitudes or the assump- tions they make about a patient’s personality, motivation, or level of un- derstanding clearly have implications for the care they give. Correlates of Communication Individuals coming together in medical dialogue bring with them all of their personal characteristics, including their personalities, social atti- tudes and values, race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, age, educa- tion, and physical and mental health. This applies to the physician as well as to the patient, though research on physician characteristics is less com-

OCR for page 552
558 UNEQUAL TREATMENT mon, owing to typically small physician samples in communication stud- ies (Roter and Hall, 1992). Furthermore, the endpoints we might wish to measure, such as satisfaction or clinical outcomes, have many determi- nants. When interpreting non-experimental comparisons such as that comprising most of the literature on physician-patient communication, it is important not to make assumptions about the causal relations among variables. Even when potentially confounding variables (such as socio- demographic variables or health status) are statistically controlled, strong inferences of causality are often not justified. Causation may lie in vari- ables unrelated to those under study, and even when one has measured the right variables, complex paths of causation can exist. In the medical interaction for example, mutual (reciprocal) influence is possible. Al- though a given behavior may be produced by a quality of the person en- gaging in it, it may also be caused by how that person responds to the other person, or how that person is treated by the other. Therefore, while we tend to think of physicians as the active agents and patients as re- sponding to them, influence does not always flow from the physician to the patient (Roter and Hall, 1992). Physicians are influenced by patients, too. For example, one recent study shows that the effect of patients’ race or ethnicity on physicians’ beliefs about patients can be moderated by patient behavior. Krupat and colleagues (1999) conducted a study in which physicians observed randomly assigned videotapes of women seeking care for breast cancer. The videotapes varied patients’ sociodemo- graphic characteristics, general health status, and assertiveness. The study showed that assertive behavior among black and low SES patients, but not in white or upper SES patients, resulted in a greater likelihood that physicians would order full tumor staging. In the sections that follow we present research relating physician- patient communication to some of the antecedent and outcome variables that are relevant for understanding and eliminating racial and ethnic dis- parities in healthcare. The Role of Physician Sociodemographic Characteristics on the Medical Dialogue Physician race and ethnicity. Few studies have explored the impact of physician race and ethnicity on medical communication. Most of these studies have used patient ratings of the quality of the patient-physician relationship and the physician’s communication style, rather than actual measures of communication, such as audiotape, videotape, or direct ob- servation. A study of 1,816 adults and 64 primary care physicians in a large managed care organization in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area examined how race and gender of physicians and patients were asso-

OCR for page 552
559 PATIENT-PROVIDER COMMUNICATION ciated with patient ratings of physicians’ participatory decision-making (PDM) style. The physician sample was 56% white, 25% African Ameri- can, 15% Asian American, and 3% Hispanic. This study showed that there were no differences between ethnic minority and white physicians with respect to patient ratings of PDM style, even when adjustments were made for patients’ age, gender, education, health status, and length of the pa- tient-physician relationship (Cooper-Patrick et al., 1999). This finding is in contrast to the Medical Outcomes Study, in which nonwhite physicians were rated as less participatory than white physicians. In this study, the ethnic mix of the nonwhite physician group was not reported. It is there- fore unclear which cultural or ethnic factors contributed to the lower par- ticipatory ratings by patients and whether the lower participatory ratings can be attributed to one specific ethnic or racial group of physicians (Kaplan et al., 1996). More research has been conducted to understand the role of physician gender in communication with patients. Methods used in these studies may provide a framework for how the role of physi- cian ethnicity and communication style in understanding racial and eth- nic disparities in healthcare might be further elucidated. Physician gender. A large amount of research conducted in non-clini- cal settings has found gender differences in communication style (Brody and Hall, 2000; Dindia and Allen, 1992; Eagly and Johnson, 1990; Hall, 1984). Indeed, the magnitude of gender differences in nonverbal expres- sion rivals or exceeds the gender differences found for a wide range of other psychological variables (Hall, 1998). As compared with women, men have been shown to engage in less smiling and laughing, less inter- personal gazing, greater interpersonal distances and less direct body ori- entation, less nodding, less hand gesturing, and fewer back-channel re- sponses (interjections such as “mm-hmm” which serve to facilitate a partner’s speech), and to have more restless lower bodies, more expan- sive arm movements, and weaker nonverbal communication skills (in terms of judging the meanings of cues and expressing emotions accurately through nonverbal cues). Men have also been found to use less verbal empathy, to be less democratic as leaders, and to engage in less personal self-disclosure than women. Also relevant is research suggesting that women experience many emotions more frequently and more intensely than men do, and refer more to emotions in their language. Observational studies of physician-patient communication typically have many fewer physicians than patients and a typical male-female phy- sician ratio of 2:1. This, plus the relative recency of interest in the role of gender on the process of care, has resulted in only two dozen or so studies that have systematically compared the communication styles of male ver- sus female physicians using audio or video recording or neutral third- party observers (Roter and Hall, 1998; Roter and Hall, 2001).

OCR for page 552
560 UNEQUAL TREATMENT One study found that although male and female physicians did not differ in how much biomedical information they conveyed, the male phy- sicians’ talk included less psychosocial discussion. Male physicians also asked fewer questions of all sorts, engaged in less partnership-building behaviors (enlisting the patient’s active participation and reducing physi- cian dominance), produced less positively toned talk and less talk with emotional content, used less positive nonverbal behavior (e.g., smiling and nodding), and had overall shorter visits than female physicians. Con- sistent with these direct observational effects, male physicians report lik- ing their patients less than female physicians report (Hall et al., 1993) and hold less patient-centered values than female physicians (where a patient- centered response is the belief that the patient’s expectations, feelings, and life circumstances are critical elements in the treatment process) (Krupat et al., 2000). Based on a recent meta-analysis of the literature, the effect sizes for these gender differences are often small. However, they could have an important impact when generalized over many medical visits and many patients (Roter, Hall, and Aoki, 2001, manuscript under review). To the extent that male physicians’ behavior and attitudes are less patient-cen- tered than those of female physicians, there may be implications for over- all quality of care and health outcomes. Considering that the gender dif- ferences among physicians closely mirror those found in the general population, it is likely that female physicians will have fewer barriers to overcome when learning to apply the biopsychosocial model in medical practice to reduce ethnic disparities in patient-physician communication. Physician social class (parental socioeconomic status). Medicine is prac- ticed largely by members of the middle class and reflects middle-class ethics in terms of hard work, delayed gratification, economic indepen- dence, and autonomy (Mechanic, 1974). Medicine is also a vehicle for social mobility, but only for those who have demonstrated mastery of middle-class values through academic performance (Kurtz and Chalfant, 1991). One effect of social class origin on the way physicians relate to pa- tients is in terms of class-based communication styles. Several studies have demonstrated sociolinguistic differences among members of vary- ing social classes. Reviewed by Waitzkin and Waterman (1974), the evi- dence suggests that there are indeed social class differences in linguistic skills. Most prominent is a tendency for middle-class subjects to be ver- bally explicit, while working-class subjects tend to communicate more implicitly through nonverbal signals. While most consideration of the consequences of these linguistic differences has been in terms of patients’ communication, it is also possible that social-class background relates to differences in physicians’ communication. These differences might act to

OCR for page 552
561 PATIENT-PROVIDER COMMUNICATION enhance communication between physicians of lower social class origin with patients of similar social class backgrounds, or to impede the ability of physicians from poorer backgrounds to communicate with patients of higher social classes (Waitzkin and Waterman, 1974). While not well studied, this issue has been explored. Physicians’ so- cial class background, as measured by their fathers’ occupations and the physician’s style of communication, was studied in audiotapes of 34 doc- tors in 336 medical visits (Waitzkin, 1985). When compared with doctors from upper- or upper middle-class backgrounds, physicians from work- ing-class backgrounds tended to spend more time informing their pa- tients, giving more explanations, and providing responses that were at the same technical level as the questions asked. The study concluded that “Orientation to verbal behavior may be a class-linked phenomenon that affects doctors as well as patients. Thus, doctors from working-class back- grounds may differ in their verbal behavior from doctors who come from a higher class position” (Waitzkin, 1985, p. 92). Another example of the evidence of how social background affects physicians’ styles of practice is found in Hollingshead and Redlich’s (1958) classic study of psychiatrists in New Haven, Connecticut. The social back- ground of the 30 psychiatrists in the study was strongly associated with how they related to patients, as well as their therapeutic orientation. Therapeutic orientation was found to fall within two distinct approaches to the treatment of patients. The first approach is analytic and psycho- logical in orientation, with an emphasis on patient insight and as little physician directiveness as possible. These psychiatrists were almost pas- sive in relation to management of their patients and almost never per- formed physical or neurologic examinations. The second approach is much more active and biomedical in nature. These psychiatrists were very directive in their therapy, often combining suggestions and advice with medical procedures, drugs, and neurologic and physical tests. There were marked differences in the social and cultural backgrounds of the psychiatrists in these two treatment approach groups. As a group, the analytic psychiatrists had moved upward much farther in the class structure than the directive group. Almost three-quarters of the analytic group, compared with 42 percent of the directive group, moved upward one or more classes from the positions occupied by their fathers (Hollings- head and Redlich, 1958). The investigators also found that the number of generations the psychiatrist’s family had been in the United States was linked to his or her theoretical orientation. Only 8 percent of the analyti- cally oriented group were from “old American stock,” whereas 44 percent of the directive group were from that background. In contrast, 58 percent of the analytic group were first- and second-generation Americans, com- pared with 38 percent of the directive group.

OCR for page 552
562 UNEQUAL TREATMENT Hollingshead and Redlich speculate that the analytic psychiatrists “like all phenomenal upward mobile persons, those who have achieved their present class positions largely through their own efforts and abilities have passed through a social, possibly also psychological, transformation” (Hollingshead and Redlich, 1958, p. 165), which accounts for their prac- tice style. While not specifically studied, it is interesting to speculate that the psychiatrist orientations described by Hollingshead and Redlich may also apply to primary care physicians and their tendency to relate to pa- tients in a more or less directive manner. Relevant to the point are the findings from a large survey of physi- cians (Haug and Lavin, 1983), which found that those who rose to the middle class reported greater attitudinal acceptance and behavioral ac- commodation to consumerist-type patient challenges than those who originally came from upper- and upper-middle-class backgrounds. This may reflect a more directive and “take charge” orientation of physicians from higher social class origins than those who are upwardly mobile. Haug and Lavin (1983) note that these findings are contrary to the theory that the upwardly mobile are more conforming to traditional norms. It is difficult to predict, based upon available evidence, what role physician social class might play in understanding racial and ethnic disparities in patient-physician communication. The Role and Impact of Patient Sociodemographics on Medical Communication In this section we will explore the extent to which the literature pre- sents evidence of how patient characteristics, such as race and ethnicity, gender, social class, literacy, health status, and age cohort affect patient- provider communication. Patient race and ethnicity. Ethnic origin and cultural background con- tribute not only to the definition of what symptoms are noteworthy, but are also responsible for how symptoms will be presented to the physician. Studies have found that physicians deliver less information, less support- ive talk, and less proficient clinical performance to black and Hispanic patients and patients of lower economic class than they do to more advantaged patients, even in the same care settings (Bartlett et al., 1984; Epstein, Taylor, and Sewage, 1985; Hooper, Comstock, Goodwin, and Goodwin, 1982; Ross, Mirowsky, and Duff, 1982; Waitzkin, 1985; Wasserman, Inui, Barriatua, Carter, and Lippincott, 1984). Various inter- pretations are possible. One is that physicians perform more poorly with such patients because they devalue them and their needs. Another is that the poor performance stems from stereotypes about the expectations, ca- pacities, and desires of such patients. Still another is that due to cultural

OCR for page 552
583 PATIENT-PROVIDER COMMUNICATION Carlisle DM, Leake BD, Shapiro MF. 1997. Racial and ethnic disparities in the use of cardio- vascular procedures: Associations with type of health insurance. American Journal of Public Health, (87):263-267. Carrasquillo O, Orav EJ, Brennan TA, Burstin HR. 1999. Impact of language barriers on patient satisfaction in an emergency department. Journal of General Internal Medicine, (14):82-87. Carrillo JE, Green AR, Betancourt JR. 1999. Cross-cultural primary care: A patient-based approach. Annals of Internal Medicine, (130):829-34. Cartwright A. 1967. Patients and their doctors. London: Routledge, Kegan Paul. Cegala D J, Marinelli T, Post D. 2000. The effects of patient communication skills training on compliance. Archives of Family Medicine, (9):57-64. Cegala DJ, McClure L, Marinelli TM, Post DM. 2000. The effects of communication skills training on patients’ participation during medical interviews. Patient Education and Counseling, (41):209-222. Cleary PD, McNeil BJ. 1988. Patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality care. Inquiry, (25): 25-36. Coe RM. 1970. Sociology of medicine. New York: McGraw Hill. Cohen-Cole S. 1991. The medical interview: The three function approach. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby. Colford JM, McPhee SJ. 1989. The ravelled sleeve of care: Managing the stresses of resi- dency training. Journal of the American Medical Association, (261):889-893. Conigliaro J, Whittle J, Good CB, Hanusa BH, Passman LJ, Lofgren RP, Allman R, Ubel PA, O’Connor M, Macpherson DS. 2000. Understanding racial variation in the use of coro- nary revascularization procedures: the role of clinical factors. Archives of Internal Medi- cine, (160):1329-1335. Cooper-Patrick L, Ford DE, Vu HT, Powe NR, Steinwachs DM, Roter DL. 2000. Patient- physician race concordance and communication in primary care. Journal of General In- ternal Medicine, (15):106. Cooper-Patrick L, Gallo JJ, Gonzales JJ, Vu HT, Powe NR, Nelson C, Ford DE. 1999. Race, gender, and partnership in the patient-physician relationship. Journal of the American Medical Association, (282):583-589. Cross TL, Bazron BJ, Dennis KW, Isaacs MR. 1989. Towards a culturally competent system of care: A monograph on effective services for minority children who are severely emotionally disturbed. Washington DC: CASSP Technical Assistance Center, Georgetown University Child Development Center. Cypress, BK. 1980. Characteristics of visits to female and male physicians. Vital and Health Statistics: Series 13, No. 49. Hyattsville, Maryland: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Davis M. 1969. Variations in patients’ compliance with doctors advice: An empirical analy- sis of patterns of communication. American Journal of Public Health, (58):274-288. Davis M. 1971. Variation in patients’ compliance with doctors’ orders: Medical practice and doctor-patient interaction. Psychiatry in Medicine, (2):31-54. Delbanco TL. 1992. Enriching the doctor-patient relationship by inviting the patient’s per- spective. Annals of Internal Medicine, (116):414-418. Delbanco TL, Stokes DM, Cleary PD, Edgman-Levitan S, Walker JD, Gerteis M, Daley J. 1995. Medical patients’ assessments of their care during hospitalization: Insights for internists. Journal of General Internal Medicine, (10):679-685. Dexter ER, LeVine SE, Velasco PM. Maternal schooling and health-related language and literacy skills in rural Mexico. 1998. Comparative Education Review, (42):139-162. DiMatteo, MR. 1994. Enhancing patient adherence to medical recommendations. Journal of the American Medical Association, (271):79-83.

OCR for page 552
584 UNEQUAL TREATMENT DiMatteo MR. 1979. Nonverbal skill and the physician-patient relationship. In Rosenthal, R. (Ed.), Skill in nonverbal communication: Individual differences. Cambridge, Massachu- setts: Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain. DiMatteo MR, Hays RD, Prince LM. 1986. Relationship of physicians’ nonverbal communi- cation skill to patient satisfaction, appointment noncompliance, and physician workload. Health Psychology, (5):581-594. DiMatteo MR, Reiter RC, Gambone JC. 1994. Enhancing medication adherence through communication and informed collaborative choice. Health Communication, (6):253-265. DiMatteo MR, Sherbourne CD, Hays RD, Ordway L, Kravitz RL, McGlynn, EA, Kaplan, S, Rogers WH. 1993. Physicians’ characteristics influence patients’ adherence to medical treatment: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Health Psychology, (12):93-102. DiMatteo MR, Taranta A, Friedman HS, Prince LM. 1980. Predicting patient satisfaction from physicians’ nonverbal communication skills. Medical Care, (18):376-387. Dindia K, Allen M. 1992. Sex differences in self-disclosure: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, (112):106-124. Doak CC, Doak LG, Root JH. 1996. Teaching Patients with Low Literacy Skills. J. B. Lippincott. Doak LG, Doak CC. 1980. Patient comprehension profiles. Recent findings and strategies. Patient Counseling and Health Education, (2):101-106 Dungal L. 1978. Physicians’ responses to patients: A study of factors involved in the office interview. Journal of Family Practice, (6):1065-1073. Eagly AH, Johnson BT. 1990. Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, (108): 233-256. Eisenberg J. 1986. Doctors’ decisions and the cost of medical care. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Health Administration Press. Elwyn G, Edwards A, Mowle S, Wensing M, Wilkinson C, Kinnersley P, Grol R. 2001. Mea- suring the involvement of patients in shared decision-making: A systematic review of instruments. Patient Education and Counseling, (43):5-22. Emanuel EJ, Emanuel LL. 1992. Four models of the physician-patient relationship. Journal of the American Medical Association, (267):2221-2226. Emanuel EJ, trans. Plato. 1961. In E. Hamilton H. Cairns (Eds.), The collected dialogues. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Emerson RM. 1976. Social exchange theory. Annual Review of Public Health, (2):335-362. Ende J, Kazis L, Moskowitz MA. 1990. Preferences for autonomy when patients are physi- cians. Journal of General Internal Medicine, (5):506-509. Ende J, Kazis L, Ash A, Moskowitz MA. 1989. Measuring patients’ desire for autonomy: Decision making and information-seeking preferences among medical patients. Jour- nal of General Internal Medicine, (4):23-30. Engel GL. 1988. How much longer must medicine’s science be bound by a seventeenth century world view? In K. White (Ed.), The task of medicine: Dialogue at Wickenburg (pp. 113-136). Menlo Park, California: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Engel GL. 1977. The need for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine. Science, (196):129-136. Epstein AM, Begg CB, McNeil BJ. 1984. The effects of physicians’ training and personality on test ordering for ambulatory patients. American Journal of Public Health, (74):1271- 1273. Epstein AM, Taylor WC, Seage GR. 1985. Effects of patients’ socioeconomic status and phy- sicians’ training and practice on patient-doctor communication. American Journal of Medicine, (78):101-106. Epstein RM, Campbell TL, Cohen-Cole SA, McWhinney IR, Smilkstein G. 1993. Perspec- tives on patient-doctor communication. Journal of Family Practice, (37):377-388.

OCR for page 552
585 PATIENT-PROVIDER COMMUNICATION Escarce JJ, Epstein KR, Colby DC, Schwartz JS. 1993. Racial differences in the elderly’s use of medical procedures and diagnostic tests. American Journal of Public Health, (83):948- 54. Evans BJ, Kiellerup FD, Stanley RO, Burrows GD, Sweet B. 1987. A communication skills programme for increasing patients’ satisfaction with general practice consultations. British Journal of Medical Psychology, (60):373-378. Fallowfield L, Jenkins V. 1999. Effective communication skills are the key to good cancer care. European Journal of Cancer, (35): 1592-1597. Fox JG, Storms DM. 1981. A different approach to sociodemographic predictors of satisfac- tion with health care. Social Science & Medicine, (15A):557-564. Fox R. 1989. Essays in medical sociology: Journeys into the field. New Brunswick, U.S.A.: Transaction Books. Freemon B, Negrete V, Davis M, Korsch B. 1971. Gaps in doctor patient communication. Pediatric Research, (5):298-311. Freidson E. 1970a. Professional dominance. Chicago: Aldine Press. Freidson E. 1970b. Profession of medicine: A study of the sociology of applied knowledge. New York: Dodd Mead. Freidson E. 1975. Doctoring together: A study of professional social control. New York: Elsevier. Freire P. 1970. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Seabury Press. Freire P. 1983. Education for critical consciousness. New York: Continuum Press. Friedman HS, DiMatteo MR, Taranta A. 1980. A study of the relationship between indi- vidual differences in nonverbal expressiveness and factors of personality and social interaction. Journal of Research in Personality, (14):351-364. Gardenschwartz L, Rowe A. 1998. Managing diversity in health care. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass, Inc. Gazmararian JA, Baker DW, Williams MV, Parker RM, Scott TL, Green DC, Fehrenbach SN, Ren J, Koplan JP. 1999. Health literacy among Medicare enrollees in a managed care organization. Journal of the American Medical Association, (281):545-551. Gerbert B. 1984. Perceived likeability and competence of simulated patients: Influence on physicians’ management plans. Social Science & Medicine, (18):1053-1060. Gerteis M, Edgman-Levitan S, Daley J, Delbanco TL. 1993. Through the Patient’s Eyes. Under- standing and Promoting Patient-Centered Care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Giron M, Manjon-Acre P, Puerto-Barber J, Sanchez-Garcia E, Gomez-Beneyto M. 1998. Clini- cal interview skills and identification of emotional disorders in primary care. American Journal of Psychiatry, (155):530-535. Gladwin T. l964. Culture and logical process. In W. H. Goodenough (Ed.), Explorations in cultural anthropology: Essays in honor of George Peter Mudock (pp. 167-177). New York: McGraw Hill. Goldberg D, Willams P. 1988. A user’s guide to the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor: NFER-Nelson. Gouldner AW. 1960. The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociologi- cal Review, (26):161-179. Gray B, Stoddard JJ. 1997. Patient-physician pairing: does racial and ethnic congruity influ- ence selection of a regular physician. Journal of Community Health, (22):247-259. Greene M, Adelman R, Charon R, Hoffman S. 1986. Ageism in the medical encounter: An exploratory study of the language and behavior of doctors with their old and young patients. Language and Communication, (6):113-124. Greene MG, Adelman RD, Charon R, Friedmann E. 1989. Concordance between physicians and their older and younger patients in the primary care medical encounter. The Ger- ontologist, (29):808-813.

OCR for page 552
586 UNEQUAL TREATMENT Greene MG, Adelman RD. 1996. Psychosocial factors in older patients’ medical encounters. Research on Aging, (18):84-102. Greene MG, Adelman RD, Friedmann E, Charon R. 1994. Older patient satisfaction with communication during an initial medical encounter. Social Science & Medicine, (38): 1279-1283. Greene MG, Hoffman S, Charon R, Adelman RD. 1987. Psychosocial concerns in the medi- cal encounter: A comparison of the interactions of doctors with their old and young patients. The Gerontologist, (27):164-168. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Ware JE, Jr., Yano EM, Frank HJL. 1988. Patients’ participation in medical care: Effects on blood sugar control and quality of life in diabetes. Journal of General Internal Medicine, (3):448-457. Gross DA, Zyzanski SJ, Borawski EA, Cebul RD, Stange KC. 1998. Patient satisfaction with time spent with their physician. Journal of Family Practice, (47):133-137. Groves JE. 1978. Taking care of the hateful patient. New England Journal of Medicine, (298): 883-887. Hall JA. 1984. Nonverbal sex differences: Communication accuracy and expressive style. Balti- more: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Hall JA. 1987. On explaining gender differences: The case of nonverbal communication. In Shaver P, Hendrick C. (Eds.), Review of Personality and Social Psychology. Newbury Park, California: Sage. Hall JA. 1998. How big are nonverbal gender differences? The case of smiling and sensitiv- ity to nonverbal cues. In DJ Canary and K Dindia (Eds.), Sex differences and similarities in communication: Critical essays and empirical investigations of sex and gender in interaction (pp. 155-177). Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates. Hall JA, Braunwald KG. 1981. Gender cues in conversations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (40):99-110. Hall JA, Dornan MC. 1988. Meta-analysis of satisfaction with medical care: Description of research domain and analysis of overall satisfaction levels. Social Science & Medicine, (27):637-644. Hall JA, Dornan MC. 1990. Patient socio-demographic characteristics as predictors of satis- faction with medical care: A meta-analysis. Social Science & Medicine, (30):811-818. Hall JA, Epstein AM, DeCiantis ML, McNeil BJ. 1993. Physicians’ liking for their patients: More evidence for the role of affect in medical care. Health Psychology, (12):140-146. Hall JA, Feldstein M, Fretwell MD, Rowe JW, Epstein AM. 1990. Older patients’ health status and satisfaction with medical care in an HMO population. Medical Care, (28): 261-270. Hall JA, Irish JT, Roter DL, Ehrlich CM, Miller LH. 1994a. Satisfaction, gender, and commu- nication in medical visits. Medical Care, (32):1216-1231. Hall JA, Irish JT, Roter DL, Ehrlich CM, Miller LH. 1994b. Gender in medical encounters: An analysis of physician and patient communication in a primary care setting. Health Psy- chology, (13):384-392. Hall JA, Milburn MA, Roter DL, Daltroy LH. 1998. Why are sicker patients less satisfied with their medical care? Tests of two explanatory models. Health Psychology, (17):70-75. Hall JA, Roter DL, Katz NR. 1988. Meta-analysis of correlates of provider behavior in medi- cal encounters. Medical Care, (26):657-675. Hall JA, Roter DL, Milburn MA, Daltroy LH. 1996. Patients’ health as a predictor of physi- cian and patient behavior in medical visits: A synthesis of four studies. Medical Care, (34):1205-1218. Hall JA, Roter DL, Rand CS. 1981. Communication of affect between patient and physician. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, (22):18-30.

OCR for page 552
587 PATIENT-PROVIDER COMMUNICATION Hall JA, Roter DL. 2002. Physician-patient communication. In: Oxford Handbook of Health Psychology. Oxford University Press. Hall O. 1948. The stages of a medical career. American Journal of Sociology, (53) :327-336. Hasselkus BR. 1994. Three track care: Older patients, family member, and physician in the medical visit. Journal of Aging Studies, (8):291-307. Haug MR. (Ed.) 1981. Elderly patients and their doctors. New York: Springer Publishing Com- pany. Haug M, Lavin B. 1983. Consumerism in medicine: Challenging physician authority. Beverly Hills, California: Sage. Haynes RB, Taylor DW, Sackett DL. 1979. Compliance in health care. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Helfer RE. 1970. An objective comparison of the pediatric interviewing skills of freshman and senior medical students. Pediatrics, (45):623-627. Henbest RJ, Stewart MA. 1989. Patient-centeredness in the consultation I: A method for measurement. Family Practice: An International Journal, (6):249-253. Hollingshead AB, Redlich FC. 1958. Social class and mental illness. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Hooper EM, Comstock LM, Goodwin JM, Goodwin JS. 1982. Patient characteristics that in- fluence physician behavior. Medical Care, (20):630-638. Jackson RH, Davis TC, Bairnsfather LE, George RB, Crouch MA, Gault H. 1991. Patient reading ability: An overlooked problem in health care. Southern Medical Journal, (84):1172-1175. Kaplan SH, Gandek B, Greenfield S, Rogers W, Ware JE. 1995. Patient and visit characteris- tics related to physicians’ participatory decision-making style: Results from the Medi- cal Outcomes Study. Medical Care, (33):1176-1183. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Gandek B, Rogers WH, and Ware, J. 1996. Characterstics of physi- cians with participatory decision-making styles. Ann Intern Med, 124:497-504. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Ware JE, Jr. 1989. Assessing the effects of physician-patient inter- actions on the outcomes of chronic disease. Medical Care, (27):S110-S127. Kirsch IS, Jungeblut A, Jenkins L, Kolstad A. 1993. Adult literacy in America: a first look at the results of the National Adult Literacy Survey. Washington, DC: Department of Education. Kleinman A, Eisenberg L, Good B. 1978. Culture, illness, and care: clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Annals of Internal Medicine, (88):251-258. Komaromy M, Grumbach K, Frake M, Vranizan K, Lurie N, Keane D, Bindman AB. 1996. The role of black and Hispanic physicians in providing health care for underserved populations. New England Journal of Medicine, (334):1305-1310. Koopman CS, Eisenthal S, Stoeckle J. 1984. Ethnicity in the reported pain, emotional dis- tress and requests of medical outpatients. Social Science & Medicine, (6):487-490. Korsch BM, Gozzi EK, Francis V. 1968. Gaps in doctor-patient communication: I. Doctor- patient interaction and patient satisfaction. Pediatrics, (42):855-871. Krupat E, Irish JT, Kasten LE, Freund KM, Burns RB, Moskowitz MA, McKinlay JB. 1999. Patient assertiveness and physician decision-making among older breast cancer pa- tients. Social Science and Medicine, (49):449-457. Krupat E, Rosenkranz SL, Yeager CM, Barnard K, Putnam SM, Inui TS. 2000. The practice orientations of physicians and patients: The effect of doctor-patient congruence on sat- isfaction. Patient Education and Counseling, (39):49-59. Kurtz RA, Chalfant HP. 1991. The sociology of medicine and illness, 2nd ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Kurz SM, Silverman JD, Draper JD. 1998. Teaching and learning communication skills in medi- cine. Oxford, England: Radcliffe Medical Press.

OCR for page 552
588 UNEQUAL TREATMENT Lazare, A, Putnam SM, Lipkin M. 1995. Three functions of the medical interview. In M. Lipkin, S. Putnam, and A. Lazare (Eds.). The medical interview: Clinical care, education, and research (pp. 3-19). New York: Springer-Verlag. Lee AJ, Gehlbach S, Hosmer Reti M, Baker CS. 1997. Medicare treatment differences for blacks and whites. Medical Care, (35):1173-89. LeVine R, Dexter E, Velasco P, LeVine S, Joshi A, Stuebing KW, Tapia-Uribe FM. 1994. Maternal literacy and health care in three countries: a preliminary report. Health Tran- sition Review, (4):186-191. Lewis G, Croft-Jeffreys C, David A. 1990. Are British psychiatrists racist? Br J Psychiatry, (157):410-415. Lipkin M, Putnam S, Lazare A. (Eds.). 1995. The medical interview: Clinical care, education, and research. New York: Springer-Verlag. Loudon RF, Anderson PM, Gill PS, Greenfield SM. 1999. Educating medical students for work in culturally diverse societies. Journal of the American Medical Association, (282):875- 880. Maguire P, Fairburn S, Fletcher C. 1986. Consultation skills of young doctors: Benefits of feedback training in interviewing as students persist. British Medical Journal, (292):1573- 1576. Makuc DM, Breen N, Freid V. 1999. Low income, race, and the use of mammography. Health Services Research, (34):229-239. Marshal VW. 1981. Physician characteristics and relationships with older patients. In Haug, M.R. (Ed.), Elderly patients and their doctors. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Maynard CL, Fisher D, Passamani ER, Pullum T. 1986. Blacks in the Coronary Artery Sur- gery Study (CASS): Race and clinical decision-making. American Journal of Public Health, (76):1446-1448. McWhinney I. 1988. Through clinic method to a more humanistic medicine. In K. White (Ed.), The task of medicine: Dialogue at Wickenburg (pp. 218-231). Menlo Park, California: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. McWhinney I. l989. The need for a transformed clinical method. In M. Stewart and D. Roter (Eds.), Communicating with medical patients (pp.25-40). Newbury Park, California: Sage. Mead N, Bower P. 2000. Measuring patient-centeredness: A comparison of three observa- tion-based instruments. Patient Education and Counseling, (39):71-80. Mechanic D. 1974. Politics, medicine, and social science. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Miles S, Davis T. 1995. Patients who can’t read: Implications for the health care system. Journal of the American Medical Association, (274):1719-1720. Moloney TW, Paul B. 1993. Rebuilding public trust and confidence. In Through the patient’s eyes. Understanding and Promoting Patient-Centered Care. Gerteis M, Edgman-Levitan S, Daley J, Delbanco TL (Eds). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Moy E, Bartman BA. 1995. Physician race and care of minority and medically indigent patients. Journal of the American Medical Association, (273):1515-1520. Murray-Garcia JL, Selby JV, Schmittdiel J, Grumbach K, Quesenberry CP, Jr. 2000. Racial and ethnic differences in a patient survey: Patients’ values, ratings, and reports regard- ing physician primary care performance in a large health maintenance organization. Medical Care, (38):300-310. Nickens HW. 1995. Race/ethnicity as a factor in health and health care. Health Services Research, (30):151-62. Nordholm LA. 1980. Beautiful patients are good patients: Evidence for the physical attrac- tiveness stereotype in first impressions of patients. Social Science & Medicine, (14A):81- 83.

OCR for page 552
589 PATIENT-PROVIDER COMMUNICATION Novack DH, Dube C, Goldstein MG. 1992. Teaching medical interviewing: A basic course on interviewing and the physician-patient relationship. Archives of Internal Medicine, (152):1814-1820. Orth JE, Stiles WB, Scherwitz L, Hennrikus D, Vallbona C. 1987. Patient exposition and provider explanation in routine interviews and hypertensive patients’ blood pressure control. Health Psychology, (6):29-42. Parikh NS, Parker RM, Nurss JR, Baker DW, Williams MV. 1996. Shame and health literacy: the unspoken connection. Patient Education & Counseling, (27):33-39. Parker RM, Baker DW, Williams MV, Nurss JR. 1995. The test of functional health literacy in adults: A new instrument for measuring patients’ literacy skills. Journal of General Internal Medicine, (10):537-541. Parsons, T. 1951. The social system. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press. Pascoe GC. 1983. Patient satisfaction in primary health care: A literature review and analy- sis. Evaluation and Program Planning, (6):185-210. Pendleton DA, Bochner S. 1980. The communication of medical information in general practice consultations as a function of patients’ social class. Social Science & Medicine, (14A):669-673. President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. 1982. Making health care decisions and ethical and legal implications of informed consent in the patient-practitioner relationship, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: US Gov- ernment Printing Office. Price JH, Desmond SM, Snyder FF, Kimmel SR. 1988. Perceptions of family practice resi- dents regarding health care and poor patients. Journal of Family Practice, (27):615-621. Prohaska TR, Glasser M. 1996. Patients’ views of family involvement in medical care deci- sions and encounters. Research on Aging, (18):52-69. Putnam SM, Stiles WB, Jacob MC, James SA. 1988. Teaching the medical interview: An intervention study. Journal of General Internal Medicine, (3):38-47. Quill TE. 1983. Partnerships in patient care: A contractual approach. Annals of Internal Medicine, (98):228-234. Radecki SE, Kane RL, Solomon DH, Mendenhall RC, Beck JC. 1988. Do physicians spend less time with older patients? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, (36):713-18. Reichardt CS, Cook TD. 1969. Qualitative and quantitative methods in evaluation research. Beverly Hills, California: Sage. Rogers PG, Bullman WR. 1995. Prescription medicine compliance: A review of the baseline of knowledge. A report of the National Council on Patient Information and Education. Journal of Pharmacoepidemiology, (2):3-36. Rogoff N. 1957. The decision to study medicine. In Merton RK, Reader GG, Kendall PL (Eds.), The student-physician. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Rosengren WR. 1980. Sociology of medicine: Diversity, conflict and change. New York: Harper & Row. Rosenthal R, Hall JA, DiMatteo MR, Rogers PL, Archer D. 1979. Sensitivity to nonverbal communication: The PONS test. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Rosenthal R, Rubin DB. 1978. Interpersonal expectancy effects: The first 345 studies. Behav- ioral and Brain Sciences, (3):377-386. Ross CE, Mirowsky J, Duff RS. 1982. Physician status characteristics and client satisfaction in two types of medical practice. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, (23):317-329. Ross CE, Duff RS. 1982. Returning to the doctor: The effects of client characteristics, type of practice, and experiences with care. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, (23):119-131. Rost K, Roter D. 1987. Predictors of recall of medication regimens and recommendations for lifestyle change in elderly patients. The Gerontologist, (27):510-515.

OCR for page 552
590 UNEQUAL TREATMENT Roter D. 1977. Patient participation in the patient-provider interaction: The effects of patient question asking on the quality of interaction, satisfaction, and compliance. Health Edu- cation Monographs, (5):281-315. Roter D. 1987. An exploration of health education’s responsibility for a partnership model of client-provider relations. Patient Education and Counseling, (9):25-31. Roter, DL. 1991. Elderly patient-physician communication: A descriptive study of content and affect during the medical encounter. Advances in Health Education, (3):179-190. Roter, DL. 2000a. The enduring and evolving nature of the patient-physician relationship. Patient Education and Counseling, (39):5-15. Roter, DL. 2000b. The medical visit context of treatment decision-making and the therapeu- tic relationship. Health Expectations, (3):17-25. Roter DL, Rudd RE, Comings J. 1998. Patient literacy. A barrier to quality of care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, Dec;13(12):850-1. Roter DL, Cole KA, Kern DE, Barker LR, Grayson M. 1990. An evaluation of residency training in interviewing skills and the psychosocial domain of medical practice. Journal of General Internal Medicine, (5):347-454. Roter D, Frankel R. 1992. Quantitative and qualitative approaches to the evaluation of the medical dialogue. Social Science & Medicine, (34):1097-1103. Roter DL, Hall JA. 1989. Studies of doctor-patient interaction. Annual Review of Public Health, (10):163-180. Roter DL, Hall JA. 1991. Health education theory: An application to the process of patient- provider communication. Health Education Research Theory and Practice, (6):185-193. Roter DL, Hall, JA. 1992. Doctors talking with patients. Patients talking with doctors: Improving communication in medical visits. Westport, Connecticut: Auburn House. Roter DL, Hall JA. 1993a. The influence of patient characteristics on communication be- tween the doctor and the patient. In Doctors talking with patients. Patients talking with doctors: Improving communication in medical visits. pp. 39-58. Roter DL, Hall JA. 1993b. The influence of physician characteristics on communication between the doctor and the patient. In Doctors talking with patients. Patients talking with doctors. Improving communication in medical visits. pp. 59-76. Roter DL, Hall JA. 1998. Why physician gender matters in the shaping of the patient- physician relationship. Journal of Women’s Health, (7):1093-1097. Roter DL, Hall JA. 2001. How physician gender shapes medical care. Mayo Clinic Proceed- ings, (76):673-676. Roter DL, Hall JA, Aoki Y. 2001. Physician gender effects in medical communication: A systematic review. Manuscript submitted for publication. Roter DL, Hall JA, Katz NR. 1987. Relations between physicians’ behaviors and analogue patients’ satisfaction, recall, and impressions. Medical Care, (25):437-451. Roter DL, Hall JA, Katz NR. 1988. Patient-physician communication: A descriptive sum- mary of the literature. Patient Education and Counseling, (12):99-119. Roter DL, Hall JA, Kern DE, Barker LR, Cole KA, Roca RP. 1995. Improving physicians’ interviewing skills and reducing patients’ emotional distress. Archives of Internal Medi- cine, (155):1877-1884. Roter DL, Hall JA, Merisca R, Nordstrom B, Cretin D, Svarstad B. 1998. Effectiveness of inter- ventions to improve patient compliance: A meta-analysis. Medical Care, (36):1138-1161. Roter D, Lipkin M, Korsgaard A. 1991. Sex differences in patients’ and physicians’ commu- nication during primary care medical visits. Medical Care, (29):1083-1093. Roter DL, McNeilis KS. 2001 . The nature of the therapeutic relationship and the assessment and consequences of its discourse in routine medical visits. In T. Thompson, A. Dorsey, K. Miller, R. Parrott (Eds.), Handbook of health communication. Mahway, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Forthcoming.

OCR for page 552
591 PATIENT-PROVIDER COMMUNICATION Roter DL, Stewart M, Putnam S, Lipkin M, Stiles W, Inui T. 1997. Communication patterns of primary care physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association, (270):350-355. Sacks H, Schegloff EA, Jefferson G. 1974. A simplest systematic for the organization of turn- taking in conversation. Language, (50):696-735. Saha S, Komaromy M, Koepsell TD, Bindman AB. 1999. Patient-physician racial concor- dance and the perceived quality and use of health care. Archives of Internal Medicine, (159):997-1004. Saha S, Taggart SH, Komaromy M, Bindman AB. 2000. Do patients choose physicians of their own race? Health Affairs, (19):76-83. Sarason BR, Sarason IG, Hacker TA, Basham RB. 1985. Concomitants of social support: Social skills, physical attractiveness, and gender. Journal of Personality and Social Psy- chology, (49):469-480. Schneider CE. 1998. The practice of autonomy: Patients, doctors, and medical decisions. New York: Oxford University Press. Schulman KA, Berlin JA, Harless W, Kerner JF, Sistrunk S, Gersh BJ, Dube R, Taleghani CK, Burke JE, Williams S, Eisenberg JM, Escarce JJ. 1999. The effect of race and sex on phy- sicians’ recommendations for cardiac catheterization. New England Journal of Medicine, (340):618-26. Scully D. 1980. Men who control women’s health: The miseducation of obstetrician-gynecologists. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Shorter E. 1985. Bedside manners. New York: Simon and Schuster. Smith RC, Marshall-Dorsey AA, Osborn GG, Shebroe V, Lyles JS, Stoffelmayr BE, Van Egeren LF, Mettler J, Maduschke K, Stanley JM, Gardiner JC. 2000. Evidence-based guidelines for teaching patient-centered interviewing. Patient Education and Counseling, (39): 27-36. Smith RC, Zimny GH. 1988. Physicians’ emotional reactions to patients. Psychosomatics, (29):392-397. Steele DJ, Jackson TC, Gutmann MC. 1990. Have you been taking your pills? The adherence monitoring sequence in the medical interview. Journal of Family Practice, (30):294-299. Stewart AL, Ware JE Jr. (Eds.). 1992. Measuring functioning and well-being: The Medical Out- comes Study approach. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. Stewart M. 1983. Patient characteristics which are related to the doctor-patient interaction. Family Practice, (1):30-35. Stewart MA. 1984. What is a successful doctor-patient interview? A study of interactions and outcomes. Social Science & Medicine, (19):167-175. Stewart MA. 1995. Effective physician-patient communication and health outcomes: A review. Canadian Medical Association Journal, (152):1423-1433. Stewart M, Brown BJ, Weston WW, McWhinney I, McWilliam CL, Freeman TR (Eds.). 1995. Patient-centered medicine: Transforming the clinical method. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. (pp. 216-228). Stewart M, Brown JB, Donner A, McWhinney IR, Oates J, Weston W. 1996. The impact of patient-centered care on patient outcomes in family practice. Final Report, Health Services Research, Ministry of Health, Ontario, Canada. Stiles WB. 1992. Describing talk: A taxonomy of verbal response modes. Newbury Park, Califor- nia: Sage. Stiles WB, Putnam SM, Jacob MC. 1982. Verbal exchange structure of initial medical inter- views. Health Psychology, (1):315-336. Stiles WB, White ML. 1981. Parent-child interaction in the laboratory: Effects of role, task, and child behavior pathology on verbal response mode use. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, (9):229-241.

OCR for page 552
592 UNEQUAL TREATMENT Suchman AL, Roter DL, Green M, Lipkin M, Jr. 1993. Physician satisfaction with primary care office visits. Medical Care, (31):1083-1092. Sue S, Zane N, Young K. 1994. Research on psychotherapy with culturally diverse popula- tions. In: Bergin AE, Garfield SL (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. New York: John Wiley, pp. 783-817. Sun BC, Adams J, Orav EJ, Rucker DW, Brennan TA, Burstin HR. 2000.Determinants of patient satisfaction and willingness to return with emergency care. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 35(5):426-434. Szasz PS, Hollender MH. 1956. A contribution to the philosophy of medicine: The basic model of the doctor-patient relationship. Archives of Internal Medicine, (97):585-592. Thompson TL. 1994. Interpersonal communication and health care. In ML Knapp, GR Miller (Eds.), Handbook of interpersonal communication, 2nd ed. (pp. 696-725). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. Tobin JN, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Wexler JP, Steingart RM, Budner N, Lense L, Wachspress J. 1987. Sex bias in considering coronary bypass surgery. Annals of Internal Medicine, (107):19-25. Tresolini CP and the Pew-Fetzer Task Force on Advancing Psychosocial Health Education. 1994. Health professions education and relationship-centered care. San Francisco, Califor- nia: Pew Health Professions Commission. Tuckett D, Boulton M, Olson C, Williams A. 1985. Meetings between experts. New York: Tavistock Publications. Tudor C. 1988. Career plans and debt levels of graduating U.S. medical students, 1981-1986. Journal of Medical Education, (63):271-275. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1996. Current Population Reports, Series P25-1130: Population Projections of the United States by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin, 1995 to 2050. Wash- ington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census. Van Dulmen AM, Verhaak PF, Bilo HJ. 1997. Shifts in doctor-patient communication dur- ing a series of outpatient consultations in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Patient Education and Counseling, (30):227-237. van Ryn M. 2002. Research on the provider contribution to race/ethnicity disparities in medical care. Medical Care. van Ryn M, Burke J. 2000. The effect of patient race and socio-economic status on physi- cians’ perceptions of patients. Social Science & Medicine, (50):813-828. Verbrugge LM, Steiner RP. 1981. Physician treatment of men and women patients: Sex bias or appropriate care? Medical Care, (19):609-632. Waitzkin H, Waterman B. 1974. The exploitation of illness in capitalist society. New York: Bobbs-Merrill. Waitzkin H. 1985. Information giving in medical care. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, (26):81-101. Wallen J, Waitzkin H, Stoeckle JD. 1979. Physician stereotypes about female health and illness. Women & Health, (4):135-146. Wallerstein N, Bernstein E. 1988. Empowerment education: Freire’s ideas adapted to health education. Health Education Quarterly, (15):379-394. Wasserman RC, Inui TS, Barriatua RD, Carter WB, Lippincott P. 1983. Responsiveness to maternal concern in preventive child health visits: An analysis of clinician-parent inter- actions. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, (4):171-176. Wasserman RC, Inui TS, Barriatua RD, Carter WB, Lippincott P. 1984. Pediatric clinicians’ support for parents makes a difference: An outcome-based analysis of clinician-parent interaction. Pediatrics, (74):1047-1053. Weisman CS, Teitelbaum MA. 1989. Women and health care communication. Patient Edu- cation and Counseling, (13):183-199.

OCR for page 552
593 PATIENT-PROVIDER COMMUNICATION Weiss BD, Coyne C. 1997. Communicating with patients who cannot read. New England Journal of Medicine, (337):272-274. Weisse CS, Sorum PC, Sanders KN, Syat BL . 2001. Do gender and race affect decisions about pain management? Journal of General Internal Medicine, (16):211-217. Wenneker MB, Epstein AM. 1989. Racial inequalities in the use of procedures for patients with ischemic heart disease in Massachusetts. Journal of the American Medical Associa- tion, (261):253-257. White K. l988. Physician and professional perspectives. In K. White (Ed.), The task of medi- cine: Dialogue at Wickenburg (pp. 30-46). Menlo Park, California: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Whittle J, Conigliaro J, Good CB, Lofgren RP. 1993. Racial differences in the use of invasive cardiovascular procedures in the Department of Veterans Affairs medical system. New England Journal of Medicine, (329):621-627. Williams MV, Parker RM, Baker DW, Parikh NS, Pitkin K, Coates WC, Nurss JR. 1995. Inad- equate functional health literacy among patients at two public hospitals. Journal of the American Medical Association, (274):1677-1682. Williams S, Weinman J, Dale J. 1998. Doctor-patient communication and patient satisfac- tion: A review. Family Practice, (15):480-492. Wissow LS, Roter D, Bauman LJ, Crain E, Kercsmar C, Weiss K, Mitchell H, Mohr B. 1998. Patient provider communication during the emergency department care of children with asthma. Medical Care, (36):1439-1450. Wissow LS, Roter D, Larson S, Wang MC, Hwang WT, Johnson R. 2000. Longitudinal pediatric care and discussion of maternal psychosocial issues. Paper presented at the Mental Health Services Research Meeting, July 2000, Washington, DC. (Abstract pages 52-53). Wissow LS, Roter DL, Wilson MEH. 1994. Pediatrician interview style and mothers’ disclo- sure of psychosocial issues. Pediatrics, (93):289-295. Xu G, Fields SK, Laine C, Veloski JJ, Barzansky B, Martini CJM. 1997. The relationship between the race/ethnicity of generalist physicians and their care for underserved populations. American Journal of Public Health, (87):817-22. Young M, Klingle RS. 1996. Silent partners in medical care: A cross-cultural study of patient participation. Health Communication, (8):29-53. Zborowski M. 1952. Cultural components in responses to pain. Journal of Social Issues, (4):16-30. Zola IK. 1963. Problems of communication, diagnosis, and patient care: The interplay of patient, physician and clinic organization. Journal of Medical Education, (38):829-838. Zola IK. 1966. Culture and symptoms: An analysis of patients’ presenting complaints. American Sociological Review, (31):615-630. Zuckerman M, Driver RE. 1985. Telling lies: Verbal and nonverbal correlates of deception. In Siegman AW, Feldstein S. (Eds.), Multichannel integrations of nonverbal behavior. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.