TABLE 5.2 Selected Losses from Sea Level Rise and Associated Erosions across Asia

SLR Rise (from 2000 levels)




0.3 m


81.4 · 103 km2

Du and Zhang (2000)


Huanghe-Huaihe Delta

21.3 · 103 km2



Changjiang Delta

54.5 · 103 km2



Zhujiang Delta

5.5 103 km2


1.0 m


2.3 · 103 km2

Mimura and Yokoki (2004)

1.0 m


1.2% area

Madsen and Jakobsen (2004)

1.1 m

India and Bangladesh

478 km2 (11%)

Loucks et al. (2010)

1.2 m

India and Bangladesh

1,396 km2 (33%)


0.3 m

India and Bangladesh

4,015 km2 (96%)


from sea level rise has been emerging over the past decade. Table 5.2, for example, offers estimates for several locations in Asia. Some are located in important deltas in China where modest sea level rise of 0.3 meters would cause significant loss of land area from inundation and erosion; others are located in eastern and southeastern Asia where 1 m of sea level rise would cause significant loss of land and protective mangroves in addition to putting many people at risk of displacement. The final entry reports recent estimates of associated loss in the habitat of the only tiger population in the world (panthera tigris) that is adapted to living in mangroves; Loucks et al. (2010) report that a nonlinear decline to extinction (at 30 cm) would begin around 15 cm of sea level rise.

Turning to specific locations within the United States, where it is possible to focus attention on downstream impacts and the potential adaptation, Figure 5.5 first depicts coastal vulnerability to erosion across the mid-Atlantic region at the end of the century for three sea level rise scenarios. Enormous variability from site to site along the coastline is clearly displayed; and so it is obvious that potential risks and the potential for adaptation can be expected to be equally diverse.


Runoff is defined as the difference between precipitation and the sum of evapotranspiration and storage change on or below the land surface. On long term balance, it must be balanced by precipitation minus evapotranspiration, which also equals atmospheric moisture convergence. Streamflow is

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