3,130 km2. Without aid from humans these species are probably not going to be able to persist.
Extinction is irreversible. Choices among stabilization targets can be expected to determine the scope of future extinction (e.g., types of species, geographic regions, etc.) that could be caused by climate change, or alternatively the scale of protective adaptation measures such as species management that could be considered to avoid extinctions.
Marine ecosystems will be affected by climate change via physical changes in ocean properties and circulation (Sections 4.1, 4.4, and 4.7), ocean acidification via altered seawater chemistry from rising atmospheric CO2 (Section 4.9), and sea-level rise via coastal habitat loss. Some of the key potential impacts will involve changes in the magnitude and geographical patterns of ecological and biogeochemical rates and shifts in the ranges of biological species and community structure (Boyd and Doney, 2002). Impacts are expected to include both direct physiological impacts on organisms through, for example, altered temperature, CO2, and nutrient supply, and indirect effects through altered food-web interactions such as changing seasonal timing (phenology) of phytoplankton blooms or disruptions in predatory-prey interactions.
Primary production by upper-ocean phytoplankton forms the base of the marine food-web and drives ocean biogeochemistry through the export flux of organic matter and calcareous and siliceous biominerals from planktonic shells. Plankton growth rates for individual species are temperature dependent and tend to increase under warming up to some threshold. When viewed in aggregate, plankton community production rates approximately follow an exponential curve in nutrient replete conditions, which would suggest increasing global primary productivity over this century as sea surface temperatures increase (Sarmiento et al., 2004). In most regions of the ocean, however, primary production rates are limited by nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron. Diatoms, a key shell-forming group of phytoplankton, are also limited by silicon. The rates of many other biological processes, such as bacterial respiration and zooplankton growth and respiration, also speed-up as temperature rises, the integrated effect at the ecosystem level is difficult to predict from first principles. Warming also occurs in conjunction