1991 and was a postdoctoral fellow and later a scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, before returning to Woods Hole in 2002. He was awarded the James B. Macelwane Medal from the American Geophysical Union in 2000, a Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellow in 2004, and the WHOI W. Van Alan Clark Sr. Chair in 2007. His scientific interests span oceanography, climate, and biogeochemistry. Much of his research focuses on how the global carbon cycle and ocean ecology respond to natural and human-driven climate change, which may act to either dampen or accelerate climate trends. A current focus is on ocean acidification due to the invasion into the ocean of carbon dioxide and other chemicals from fossil-fuel burning. He is currently the chair of the U.S. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program and the U.S. Ocean Carbon and Climate Change Program.

Katharine Hayhoe is an atmospheric scientist and research associate professor in the Department of Geosciences at Texas Tech University. Her research focuses on quantifying the potential impacts of human activities at the regional scale, including evaluating the ability of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models to simulate real-world phenomena and developing new techniques to generate scientifically robust, high-resolution projections. She is the author of more than 40 peer-reviewed publications, several book chapters, and numerous reports, including the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s 2009 report, Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States.

Isaac Held (NAS) majored in physics at the University of Minnesota, continued on in physics to obtain a master’s degree from the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and then started his career of research into climate dynamics at Princeton University, where he received his Ph.D. in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences in 1976. He has spent most of his career at NOAA’s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, where he is currently a Senior Research Scientist and conducts studies on climate dynamics and climate modeling. He is also a lecturer with rank of professor at Princeton University, in its Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program, and is an Associate Faculty member in Princeton’s Applied and Computational Mathematics Program and in the Princeton Environmental Institute. Dr. Held is a fellow of the American Meteorological Society (1991) and the American Geophysical Union (1995) and a member of the National Academy of Sciences (2003). Governmental awards include a Department of Commerce Gold Medal (1999) for “world leadership in studies of climate dynamics”

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