Dependence of ENSO Prediction Skill. Journal of Climate 8:2705–2715.

Balmaseda, M., A. Vidard, and D. Anderson, 2008: The ECMWF ocean analysis system: ORA-S3. Monthly Weather Review 136:3018–3034.

Balmaseda, M. Y. Fujii, O. Alves, T. Lee, M. Rienecker, T. Rosati, D. Stammer, Y. Xue, H. Freeland, M. J. McPhaden, L. Goddard, and C. Coelho. 2009. Role of the ocean observing system in an end-to-end seasonal forecasting system. In Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21–25 September 2009, J. Hall, D. E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. ESA Publication WPP-306.

Barnett, T.P. and R. Preisendorfer. 1987. Origins and levels of monthly and seasonal forecast skill for United States surface air temperatures determined by canonical correlation analysis. Monthly Weather Review 115:1825–1850.

Barnston, A. G. and R. E. Livezey. 1987. Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Monthly Weather Review 115:1083–1126.

Barnston, A. G. and C. F. Ropelewski. 1992. Prediction of ENSO episodes using canonical correlation analysis. Journal of Climate 5:1316–1345.

Barnston, A. G. and Y. He. 1996. Skill of canonical correlation analysis forecasts of 3-month mean surface climate in Hawaii and Alaska. Journal of Climate 9:2579–2605.

Barnston, A. G., A. Leetmaa, V. E. Kousky, R. E. Livezey, E. O’Lenic, H. van den Dool, A. J. Wagner, and D. A. Unger. 1999. NCEP Forecasts of the El Niño of 1997–98 and its U.S. Impacts. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 80:1829–1852.

Barnston, A. G., Y. He, and D. A. Unger. 2000. A forecast product that maximizes utility for state-of-the-art seasonal climate prediction. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 81:1271–1279.

Barnston, A. G. and M. Tippett. 2009. An Evaluation of the Skill of ENSO Forecasts during 2002–2009. 34th Annual Climate diagnostics and Prediction Workshop, October 26–30, 2009, Monterey, California, USA.

Barnston, A. G., S. Li, S. J. Mason, D. G. DeWitt, L. Goddard, and X. Gong. 2009. Verification of the first 11 years of IRI’s seasonal climate forecasts. Journal of Climate (in press).

Barry, R. G. 1995. Observing systems and data sets related to the cryosphere in Canada: A contribution to planning for the Global Climate Observing System. Atmosphere-Ocean 33:771–807.

Battisti, D.S. and A.C. Hirst, 1989. Interannual Variability in the Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean System: Influences of the Basic State, Ocean Geometry and Nonlinearity. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 46:1687-1712.

Bechtold, P., M. Köhler, T. Jung, F. Doblas-Reyes, M. L. becher, M. J. Rodwell, F. Vitart, and G. Balsamo. 2008. Advances in simulating atmospheric variability with the ECMWF model: From synoptic to decadal time-scales. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 134:1337–1351.

Behringer, D.W., M. Ji, and A. Leetmaa. 1998. An improved coupled model for ENSO prediction and implications for ocean initialization. Part I: The ocean data assimilation system. Monthly Weather Review 126(4):1013–1021.

Behringer, D. 2007. Evaluation of the Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS) at NCEP. 11th Symposium on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, American Meteorological Society, San Antonio, Texas, January 14-18.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement