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Genome annotation The process of determining the locations of genes and coding regions in a genome and their functions.

Genome sequencing The process of determining the DNA sequence of an organism’s genome (i.e. total hereditary material).

Graft To unite a shoot or bud (i.e. scion) to an established plant (i.e. stock) by insertion or by attachment.

Graft inoculation Introduction of a pathogen to a healthy plant by inserting a bud which is infected with the pathogen (i.e. grafting).

Gram-negative bacteria Bacteria that turn red or pink when subjected to Gram staining protocol, a reaction due to the structural composition of their cell walls.

Haemocele The blood-filled body cavity of arthropods.

Inoculation…For Ca. Liberibacter” spp. is the passage of pathogens in saliva from the salivary glands into phloem sieve elements via salivation.

Heterozygosity The condition wherein dissimilar alleles (forms of a gene) are present at one or more loci on homologous chromosomes.

Latent period (plant) Time in the plant from pathogen inoculation by vector, graft or mechanical transmission to the time of pathogen expression by symptoms or detection by diagnosis (e.g. serology, PCR, TEM).

Homoptera An insect sub-order comprised of plant-feeding insects with sucking mouthparts. Its members include aphids, leafhoppers, cicadas, and scale insects.

Phytoplasma Formerly known as 'Mycoplasma-like organisms' or MLOs, are bacteria that lack cell wall which thrive in plant phloem tissues and some insects.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) A technique used to increase the amount of a specific DNA sequence or DNA region by separating the DNA strand into two and incubating it with oligonucleotide primers and DNA polymerase.

Pure culture In vitro growth of only one type of microorganism.

Pyrosequencing A DNA sequencing technique that depends on the detection of pyrophosphate release during DNA synthesis.

Retention For Ca. Liberibacter” spp. is the act of pathogen moving through haemocoele and infecting various organs including the salivary glands.

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