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Appendix E
Significant Citrus Diseases Other Than Huanglongbing

Disease Name

Causal Organism/Vector




Additional Information

Systemic Diseases

Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

Xylella fastidiosa

Southern Brazil; Argentina; Costa Rica

Propagation of healthy budwood; pruning infected limbs of newly-affected trees; removal of affected trees in young plantings.

Chang et al., 1993; Hartung et al., 1994; Timmer et al., 2003

Potentially important anywhere in the world.

Transmitted by sharpshooters and other xylem-feeding leafhoppers

Stubborn Disease

Spiroplasma citri

Arid citrus regions, such as parts of California and Arizona, North Africa, and the Middle East

Avoiding infection in nurseries and young plantings.

Roistacher, 1991; Timmer et al., 2003

Unlikely to be a problem in humid areas where environmental conditions for spread do not exist.

Transmitted by several species of leafhoppers

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OCR for page 199
Appendix E Significant Citrus Diseases Other Than Huanglongbing Disease Name Causal Distribution Management/Control Reference Additional Information Organism/Vector 199 Systemic Diseases Potentially important Chang et al., Citrus Variegated Southern Brazil; Propagation of healthy Xylella fastidiosa anywhere in the world. 1993; Hartung et Chlorosis Argentina; Costa budwood; pruning infected Transmitted by al., 1994; Rica limbs of newly-affected sharpshooters and Timmer et al., trees; removal of affected other xylem-feeding 2003 trees in young plantings. leafhoppers Stubborn Disease Arid citrus Avoiding infection in Roistacher, 1991; Unlikely to be a Spiroplasma citri regions, such as nurseries and young Timmer et al., problem in humid Transmitted by parts of plantings. 2003 areas where several species of California and environmental leafhoppers Arizona, North conditions for spread Africa, and the do not exist. Middle East

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Disease Name Causal Distribution Management/Control Reference Additional Information 200 Organism/Vector Decline strains Roistacher, 1991; Use of tolerant rootstocks Tristeza Decline Asia, South Citrus Tristeza Virus spreading in the Garnsey, 2005; and scion varieties; cross and Stem Pitting (CTV) America, South Mediterranean; the Hilf, 2005; Costa protection with mild, strains Africa, Australia, Transmitted by importance of stem and Müller, 1980 of CTV to delay Spain, Israel, several species of pitting increases with infection/reduce severity of Southern Italy aphids spread of Toxoptera stem pitting. citricidus, the most efficient vector. Conditions outside of Use of tolerant rootstocks Román et al., Citrus Sudden Virus (member of Brazil (southern Brazil may not favor (such as Cleopatra and Sunki 2004; Bassanezi Death or Morte Marafivirus) Minas Gerais and development of this mandarins, Carrizo citrange, et al., 2003 Subita dos Citros northern São Graft transmissible; disease. and Swingle citrumelo) Paulo) vector has not been instead of Rangpur lime. identified Most important in Derrick and Replacement of affected trees Citrus Blight Unknown The Americas, Florida and Brazil; Timmer, 2000; with trees on tolerant Australia, South Transmissible by potential for Timmer and rootstocks; no known cure Africa root-piece and tree- development Bhatia, 2003 for this disease. to-tree root grafts elsewhere uncertain. Only locally systemic Control of its mite vector Roistacher, 1991; Leprosis Bacilliform Virus South America in infected areas of the using acaricides. Bastianel et al., and Central Transmitted by tree. 2006 America Brevipalpus mites Witches' Broom Phloem-limited Oman; United WBDL is only confined to Garnier et al., Dangerous disease for Disease of Lime phytoplasma Arab Emirates; limes; sweet orange, 1991; Roistacher, western Mexico and (WBDL) Iran mandarin and grapefruit are 1991 other producing areas May be transmitted apparently resistant. of Mexican lime. by Hishimonus phycitis leafhoppers

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Disease Name Causal Distribution Management/Control Reference Additional Information Organism/Vector Duran-Villa et Have been largely Wherever citrus Eliminated by certification Viroids Citrus exocortis al., 2000 eliminated by is grown programs; sterilization of viroid (CEVd); budwood certification pruning tools and budding Cachexia CVdI, programs; important knives. CVdII; CVdII, primarily on rootstocks CVdIV such as trifoliate orange and its hybrids and Rangpur lime. Bacterial and Foliar Fungal Diseases Not only important for Civerolo, 1984; Citrus Canker Quarantine and eradication Asia; southern Xanthomonas citri fresh fruit; causes Koizumi, 1985; where not endemic; in subsp. citri Brazil, Argentina; significant leaf and Graham and endemic areas, windbreaks to Uruguay; fruit drop. Gottwald, 1991; reduce severity and copper Caribbean; Gottwald et al., products to prevent fruit Florida 2001; Schubert et infection. al., 2001; Graham et al., 2004 Not only important for Peres and Controlled primarily by Widespread in Citrus Black Spot Guignardia fresh fruit; causes Timmer, 2003; fungicide applications the humid to citricarpa significant fruit drop Timmer et al., (benzimidazoles, copper semi-arid citrus- (Anamorph: as well. 2004; products, dithiocarbamates, growing areas in Phyllosticta or strobilurin) in the summer. the Southern citricarpa) Hemisphere Not only important for Seif and Preventive applications of Pseudocercospora Angola; Pseudocercospora fresh fruit; causes Hillocks, 1997; copper fungicides, Fruit and Leaf Spot Mozambique; anglonensis significant leaf and Timmer et al., chlorothalonil, flusilazole, or Yemen; Western fruit drop. 2004 propineb. and Southern Africa 201

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Disease Name Causal Distribution Management/Control Reference Additional Information 202 Organism/Vector Foliar applications of Mondal and May cause severe Greasy Spot Uncertain; Mycosphaerella citri petroleum oils or various Timmer, 2006 defoliation and fruit and other widespread in the fungicides. blemishes, especially Mycosphaerella spp. Caribbean area; on grapefruit and some problems lemons. occur elsewhere and may due to other species of Mycosphaerella. Timmer et al., Only important for Sweet Orange South America Application of sterol- Elsinoe australis 2004 fresh fruit production. Scab inhibiting fungicides, ferbam, benzimidazoles, strobilurins, or copper products. Only important where Timmer et al., Postbloom Fruit Western Application of fungicide such Colletotrichum rainfall is high during 1994; Peres et Drop Hemisphere as benzimidazoles, acutatum bloom. al., 2005 ; strobilurins, captan, maneb, Timmer and or ferbam. A computer Brown, 2000 assisted system has been developed for timing fungicide applications. Only affects some Timmer et al., Minimize leaf wetness Alternaria Brown First described in Alternaria alternata tangerines and hybrids; 2003; Akimitsu (avoiding overhead Spot Australia in 1903; spreading in semi-arid et al., 2003 irrigation); use of disease- Mediterranean; areas. free nursery trees; avoiding Caribbean Basin; excessive nitrogen South Africa; fertilization and irrigation; South America application of foliar fungicides. alter-rater, a predictive system, has been developed to time sprays.