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Disease Name

Causal Organism/Vector




Additional Information

Tristeza Decline and Stem Pitting

Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV)

Asia, South America, South Africa, Australia, Spain, Israel, Southern Italy

Use of tolerant rootstocks and scion varieties; cross protection with mild, strains of CTV to delay infection/reduce severity of stem pitting.

Roistacher, 1991; Garnsey, 2005; Hilf, 2005; Costa and Müller, 1980

Decline strains spreading in the Mediterranean; the importance of stem pitting increases with spread of Toxoptera citricidus, the most efficient vector.

Transmitted by several species of aphids

Citrus Sudden Death or Morte Subita dos Citros

Virus (member of Marafivirus)

Brazil (southern Minas Gerais and northern São Paulo)

Use of tolerant rootstocks (such as Cleopatra and Sunki mandarins, Carrizo citrange, and Swingle citrumelo) instead of Rangpur lime.

Román et al., 2004; Bassanezi et al., 2003

Conditions outside of Brazil may not favor development of this disease.

Graft transmissible; vector has not been identified

Citrus Blight


The Americas, Australia, South Africa

Replacement of affected trees with trees on tolerant rootstocks; no known cure for this disease.

Derrick and Timmer, 2000; Timmer and Bhatia, 2003

Most important in Florida and Brazil; potential for development elsewhere uncertain.

Transmissible by root- piece and tree-to- tree root grafts


Bacilliform Virus

South America and Central America

Control of its mite vector using acaricides.

Roistacher, 1991; Bastianel et al., 2006

Only locally systemic in infected areas of the tree.

Transmitted by Brevipalpus mites

Witches' Broom Disease of Lime (WBDL)

Phloem- limited phytoplasma

Oman; United Arab Emirates; Iran

WBDL is only confined to limes; sweet orange, mandarin and grapefruit are apparently resistant.

Garnier et al., 1991; Roistacher, 1991

Dangerous disease for western Mexico and other producing areas of Mexican lime.

May be transmitted by Hishimonus phycitis leafhoppers

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