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Appendix F
Significant Citrus Insect and Mite Pests

Insect Name

Distribution

Management/Control

Reference

Additional Information

Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata)

Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, South America; introduced into the US but successfully eradicated

Insecticide-treated baits applied to scattered trees in the orchard; most Medfly larvae are killed when fresh fruits are shipped under cold storage

Thomas et al., 2007; Lanza et al., 2005

Serious pest in many areas

Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)

Asia; occasionally found in Florida and California

Similar to Mediterranean fruit fly

Weems et al., 2008

Most serious of all fruit flies, except for Mediterranean fruit fly

Mexican Fruit Fly (Anastrepha ludens)

Mexico; Central America; Frequently found in Texas

Similar to Mediterranean fruit fly

Weems et al., 2008

Less serious than other fruit flies



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Appendix F Significant Citrus Insect and Mite Pests Insect Name Distribution Management/Control Reference Additional Information Thomas et al., 2007; Serious pest in Insecticide-treated baits Mediterranean Fruit Fly Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, 203 Lanza et al., 2005 many areas applied to scattered trees (Ceratitis capitata) South America; introduced into in the orchard; most the US but successfully Medfly larvae are killed eradicated when fresh fruits are shipped under cold storage Asia; occasionally found in Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera Similar to Mediterranean Weems et al., 2008 Most serious of all Florida and California dorsalis) fruit fly fruit flies, except for Mediterranean fruit fly Mexican Fruit Fly Mexico; Central America; Similar to Mediterranean Weems et al., 2008 Less serious than (Anastrepha ludens) Frequently found in Texas fruit fly other fruit flies

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Insect Name Distribution Management/Control Reference Additional Information 204 Caribbean Fruit Fly Caribbean Basin; Commonly Similar to Mediterranean Weems et al., 2008 Less serious than (Anastrepha suspensa) found in Florida fruit fly other fruit flies McCoy et al., 2009; Most serious root Caribbean; Common in Florida; Foliar insecticide Diaprepes Root Weevil Woodruff, 1985 weevil pest Found but not widely distributed applications to kill adults; (Diaprepes abreviatus), aka in Texas and California soil-applied insecticides to West Indian Sugar Rootstock kill larvae; parasitic Borer Weevil nematodes applied to soil surface to kill larvae in the soil; these measures are not highly effective in controlling the damage Limited distribution in the Insecticide applications to McCoy et al., 2009; Feeds primarily on Blue-green Root Weevils Caribbean Basin and Florida control adult weevils Woodruff, 1985; Hall, fibrous roots (Pachneus spp.) 1995 causing minor to moderate yield loss Little Leaf Notcher (Artipus Limited distribution in the Insecticide applications to McCoy et al., 2009; Feeds primarily on floridanus) Caribbean Basin and Florida control adult weevils Woodruff, 1985; Hall, fibrous roots 1995 causing minor to moderate yield loss Fuller’s Rose Beetle Feeds primarily on Insecticide applications to McCoy et al., 2009; Occurs widely on many hosts, (Asynonychus godmani) fibrous roots control adult weevils Woodruff, 1985; Hall, but is of little significance as a causing minor to 1995 citrus pest moderate yield loss

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Insect Name Distribution Management/Control Reference Additional Information Exopthalmus spp. Limited distribution in the Insecticide applications to McCoy et al., 2009; Attacks the crown . APPENDIX F Caribbean Basin; not in Florida control adult weevils Woodruff, 1985; Hall, of the tree in 1995 addition to roots and can kill trees Citrus Leafminer Heppner, 1993 Exacerbates the Widespread in citrus Biological control and Phyllocnistis citrella severity of citrus insecticide applications to canker young flush Brown citrus aphid Biological control; Halbert et al., 2004 Important primarily Asia, Pacific Islands, Australia, Toxoptera citricida insecticide application as a vector of Citrus New Zealand, Africa, South. usually not beneficial America, Central America, tristeza virus Eastern Mexico, Florida, northern Portugal and northern Spain Citrus thrips Northern Mexico and western Application of Kerns, et al., 2001 Superficial damage; Scirtothrips citri US insecticides important only for fresh fruit Sharpshooters Southeastern US, Biological control; in Blua and Morgan, 2003 Minor pest; Homalodisca vitripennis (=H. Florida, California, Mexico California, insecticides important vector if coagulata) used against citrus variegated overwintering adults chlorosis is introduced to California Brevipalpus mites Tropical and subtropical Biological control and Childers et al., 2001 Minor pest; feeds B. californicus distribution but occur with citrus acaricides and oil on fruit and B. obovatus worldwide blemishes rind; B. phoenicis important because B. lewisi some species transmit leprosis 205

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