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With the use of psyllid to transmit the HLB pathogen, it was confirmed that trees with "citrus dieback" symptoms were positive for HLB.

Capoor et al

Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 37(6):572-576


Citrus dieback in India is reported to have many similarities with greening disease of South Africa. The similarities with huanglongbing in China could not have been mentioned because Lin’s work on HLB was still not known out of China.

Fraser and Singh

Proceedings of 4th Conference, IOCV:141-144, University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Riverside, CA.


Localized pockets of necrotic phloem were found scattered throughout vascular system of mature leaves in greening-affected sweet orange shoots in South Africa. Leaf mottle associated with HLB are thought to be caused by the reaction to the blockage of the translocation stream.


Phytopathology 58:1155-1160


HLB in Africa was found to be heat-sensitive and occurs only in areas below 30-32°C. Trioza erytreae, the African psyllid vector, was also found to thrive only in cool environments.


Journal of Entomology Society South Africa 32:209-223;


"Mycoplasma-like organism" observed in citrus phloem tissue infected with HLB through electron microscopy.

Laflèche and Bové

Comptes Rendus de L'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 270:1915-1917


These are the first two reports on bacterial structures associated with HLB, a disease until then considered to be caused by a virus. The structures were restricted to the phloem sieve tubes and were thought to be mycoplasmas, i.e bacteria lacking a cell wall. They were observed not only with South Africa greening, but also with Reunion and Indian greening. They were shown only a few months later to be not mycoplasma-like (see Saglio et. al., 1971).

Laflèche and Bové

Fruits 25: 455-465 C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 270:1915-17


HLB bacterium seen in citrus with "likubin" disease.

Chen et al

Phytopathology 61:598

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