(serving about 2 million people) and 1.4 MAF to sustain fish, wildlife, and their habitats. The SWP provides about 70 percent of its water to M&I customers (about 20 million people) and 30 percent to agriculture (about 660,000 acres of irrigated farmland). The largest SWP contractor is the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, which receives about 50 percent of SWP deliveries in any one year. At least two-thirds of the population of California depends on water delivered from these projects as a primary or supplemental source of supply. Other important functions provided by both projects include flood protection, recreation, power generation, and water quality to preserve fish and wildlife.

Both projects preceded and accommodated the explosive growth of California’s economy and population. The CVP was begun in the mid to late 1930s and the SWP was begun in the 1960s. Dozens of reservoirs and lakes, pumping facilities, and over 1,200 miles of pipelines and canals make up the two interdependent water-supply and delivery systems.

The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

In the middle of both systems and connecting the northern water supply reservoirs and southern water demands is the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Figure 1-1). Thus, the delta is an integral part of the water-delivery infrastructure for both the SWP and CVP. While the focus of this report is the determination of the effects of water allocations for fish, there are many other requirements that must be met in the delta to maintain flows and quality for the many uses of water delivered by the SWP and CVP projects.

Two major pumping plants draw water from the channels and rivers feeding the delta. The SWP pumping plant (Banks Pumping Plant) can deliver an average flow of nearly 6,700 cubic feet per second (cfs) to Clifton Court Forebay for transport to users south of the delta. The Jones Pumping Plant withdraws water primarily from Old River and has the capability of 4,600 cfs to contractors in southern California. Relatively small amounts of water are extracted for the Contra Costa canal (up to 195,000 af or 195 thousand acre-feet {TAF} per year) and the North Bay Aqueduct (up to 71 TAF per year) (FWS, 2008). In addition, diversions occur upstream of the delta. These diversions affect the location of X2, the amount of water that can be withdrawn at the pumps, the flow in the San Joaquin River, and other factors.

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