TABLE 3.1 Reducing Uncertainties of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Land Use Through Remote Sensing and Improved Monitoring Systems

Measurement

Current Annual Uncertaintya

Nature of Improvement

Recommendationb

Attainable Annual Uncertainty

Notes

Forest Area

 

 

 

 

 

Northern forest area

1c

Systematic land cover mapping across different countries using multiple satellite data streams

A

1+

 

Northern forest deforestation afforestation

2-3d

Long-term continuity of ~30 m and ~1 m satellite observations; new investment to map changes at an annual scale using new change detection algorithms

B, A

1-2

Loss of LDCM would increase uncertainty for both northern and tropical deforestation rates to level 5 (greater than 100%)

Tropical forest area

1-3e

Same needs as for mapping northern forest area; improved access to international satellite observations

B, A

1-2

 

Tropical forest deforestation-afforestation

3-4f

Same as above

B, A, C

1-2

 

Carbon Stocks

 

 

 

 

 

Northern ecosystem carbon stocks

2-4g

Improved access to existing country inventories; a new initiative to improve the spatial distribution of emission factors by combining P-band radar and lidar observations with inventory data

E, D, C

2

Many Annex I forest carbon inventories are not publicly available

Tropical ecosystem carbon stocks

3-4h

Capacity building for tropical forest and peatland inventories; the emission factor initiative described above

E, D, C

2

Forest biomass measurements have not been systematically organized; peatland areas and depths have not been accurately mapped

Ecosystem Degradation

 

 

 

 

 

Logging

3-4i

Dedicated high-resolution (~1 m) observations for assessing logging rates in deforestation hot spots and for relating degradation patterns to Landsat observations; a wood products tracking system

B, A

2

 

Fire emissions from tropical forests and peatlands

3-4j

Improved atmospheric emission ratios of CO/CO2 for deforestation and peatland fires

E, F

2

An OCO rebuild with existing MOPITT and TES CO observations would enable improved estimates of peat emissions

CO2Emissions

 

 

 

 

 

Northern ecosystem carbon fluxes

2-4k

Improved inventories with below ground carbon monitoring in cropland, grassland, and forests; integration of improved observations with biogeochemical models

A-E

2

Higher uncertainty levels for countries without inventories



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