ENGINEERING, SOCIAL JUSTICE, AND SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

Summary of a Workshop

Rachelle Hollander, Editor

Nathan Kahl, Co-editor

Advisory Group for the Center for Engineering, Ethics, and Society

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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ENGINEERING, SOCIAL JUSTICE, AND SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Summary of a Workshop Rachelle Hollander, Editor Nathan Kahl, Co-editor Advisory Group for the Center for Engineering, Ethics, and Society

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 On October 2-3, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) held a workshop on “Engineering, Social Justice, and Sustainable Community Development.” This sum - mary, prepared by NAE staff, provides summaries of the workshop presentations and discussions. This workshop was supported in part by Contract/Grant No. 0750007 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-15258-7 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-15258-5 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (888) 624-8373 or (202) 334- 3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); online at http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina - tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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CENTER FOR ENGINEERING, ETHICS, AND SOCIETY ADVISORY GROUP AND WORKSHOP PLANNING COMMITTEE JOHN F. AHEARNE, NAE, chair, National Academy of Engineering Center for Engineering, Ethics, and Society Advisory Group; director, Ethics Program, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society JUAN LUCENA, associate professor, Liberal Arts and International Studies, Colorado School of Mines DEBRA STEWART, president, Council of Graduate Schools CAROLINE WHITBECK, Elmer G. Beamer–Hubert H. Schneider professor in ethics, Case Western Reserve University WM. A. WULF, president emeritus, NAE; university professor and AT&T professor of engineering and applied sciences, University of Virginia Principal Support Staff CAROL R. ARENBERG, senior editor, National Academy of Engineering JESSICA BUONO, program associate, National Academy of Engineering Program Office (until November 2008) CECILE GONZALEZ, program associate, National Academy of Engineering Program Office (until mid-August 2008) RACHELLE D. HOLLANDER, director, National Academy of Engineering Center for Engineering, Ethics, and Society NATHAN KAHL, program associate, National Academy of Engineering Program Office JACQUELINE MARTIN, senior program assistant, National Academy of Engineering Awards Program VALERIE HENDERSON SUMMET, Mirzayan Fellow, National Academy of Engineering Winter, 2010 

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Acknowledgments This summary has been reviewed, in draft form, by individuals cho- sen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies. The purpose of this independent review process is to provide candid and critical com- ments to assist the committee and the National Academy of Engineer- ing (NAE) in making its published reports as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evi - dence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The reviewers’ comments and the draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their reviews of this report: John Ahearne, director, Ethics Programs, The Sigma Xi Center Paul Citron, vice president (retired), Medtronic, Inc. David Daniel, president, University of Texas at Dallas Charles Ed Harris, Harry E. Bovay professor of engineering ethics, Texas A&M University Deborah Johnson, Olsson professor of applied ethics, University of Virginia William Oakes, director of the EPICS Program, Purdue University Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were neither asked to endorse the views expressed in the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its public release. The review was overseen by Dr. George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, who was appointed by NAE to ensure ii

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accor- dance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the editors and the NAE. In addition to the reviewers, the Center for Engineering, Ethics, and Society (CEES) advisory group wishes to thank the project staff. Pro - gram associates Cecile Gonzalez (until mid-August 2008), Nathan Kahl, and Jacqueline Martin managed the project’s logistical and administra- tive needs, making sure the workshop ran efficiently and smoothly, and Jessica Buono (until November 2008) provided research and administra- tive services. NAE senior editor Carol R. Arenberg edited the summary drafted by CEES director Rachelle Hollander. Nathan Kahl drafted the initial reports of the small group discussions and helped edit the report and supervise the editorial and review response process. Mirzayan Fel- low Valerie Henderson Summet reviewed the final draft of the summary, selected the quotes to include in the text, and worked with National Academies Press on the production of the volume. CEES director Rachelle Hollander managed the project from start to finish.

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION AND OPENING REMARKS 1 1.1 Opening Session, 2 2 SESSION I: ENGINEERING AND SPECIAL VULNERABILITIES 5 2.1 Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water in Bangladesh, 6 2.2 Engineering Projects in International Emergencies, 6 2.3 Addressing the Sustainability Challenge, 8 2.4 Panel Discussion, 8 2.5 General Discussion, 9 3 SESSION II: ENGINEERING, ETHICS, AND SOCIETY 11 3.1 Integrating Macro-ethics and Micro-ethics, 11 3.2 Humanitarian Engineering, 12 3.3 Real-World Ethical Debates, 14 3.4 Panel Discussions, 15 3.5 General Discussion, 16 4 PANEL ON EARLY-CAREER ENGINEERS 19 4.1 “Community Engineering,” 19 4.2 Environmental Engineering, 21 4.3 Discussion, 22 5 SESSION III: IMPLICATIONS FOR ENGINEERING EDUCATION 23 5.1 Engineering Programs at Tufts University, 24 5.2 Engineering with an Eye to Social Justice, 24 ix

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x CONTENTS 5.3 Educating Volunteer Engineers, 25 5.4 Panel Discussion, 26 5.5 General Discussion, 28 6 SMALL GROUP MEETINGS 29 6.1 Group 1, Engineers’ Perspectives, 30 6.2 Group 2, Social Perspectives, 32 6.3 Group 3, Ethics Education, 33 6.4 Group 4, Professional Societies, 35 7 ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION: THE INTERSECTION OF HUMANITARIAN ACTION, SOCIAL JUSTICE, AND SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 37 7.1 The Teaching of Engineering Ethics, 37 7.2 Curriculum-Based Sustainable Development Projects, 39 7.3 Integrating Criteria for Considering Humanitarian Assistance in Engineering Curricula and Professional Codes of Ethics, 40 7.4 Panel Discussion, 41 7.5 General Discussion and Wrap-Up, 43 APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 47 B Workshop Attendees 55