. "Appendix A: Gaps in Knowledge and Practice for the Next Decade in Urban Meteorology." When Weather Matters: Science and Service to Meet Critical Societal Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010.
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When Weather Matters: Science and Services to Meet Critical Societal Needs
techniques at a range of scales starting with the individual building where measurements can close the energy budget on a control volume. (M)
Need simultaneous measurements of flow properties at various sites and levels to better study coherent structures and intermittent ventilation processes within the roughness sublayer. (M)
Need to better assess urban surface characteristics (e.g., emissivity to develop methods to correct for thermal anisotropy), and determine fluxes from remote sensing. (M)
Need to explore the use of new measurement techniques including the use of remote sensing technologies and smaller, more mobile and affordable instruments. (M)
Need to meet data requirements to allow translation of research findings into urban/building design tools and guidelines for different climate zones and classes of urban land-use. (H)
Need to ensure that data are provided in a format that is usable for a broad range of practitioners without compromise to scientific accuracy and integrity. (H)
Need to ensure metadata to describe instrument, siting, quality assurance and control features and documentation are complete and comparable by creating, and using, a standardized urban protocol. (H)
Need to develop methods and frameworks to analyse atmospheric data measured above complex urban surfaces. This includes measurement source areas to ensure representative results and meaningful comparison between sites. (H)
Need to know more about the outer layer of the urban boundary layer (UBL), i.e., the atmosphere above the internal surface layer (ISL). (H)
Need to assess for each intervention what scale interventions are needed and possible (e.g., legally, economically, planning, technically, etc.) to make cities more sustainable (e.g., livable, healthy, etc.). (H)
Need for assessment of human-induced large-scale climate change at the scale of cities to ensure that the signal of climate change is distinguished from the noise of natural variability. (H)
Need to better understand the coupling of surface and air temperatures. (M)