techniques at a range of scales starting with the individual building where measurements can close the energy budget on a control volume. (M)

  • Need simultaneous measurements of flow properties at various sites and levels to better study coherent structures and intermittent ventilation processes within the roughness sublayer. (M)

  • Need to better assess urban surface characteristics (e.g., emissivity to develop methods to correct for thermal anisotropy), and determine fluxes from remote sensing. (M)

  • Need to explore the use of new measurement techniques including the use of remote sensing technologies and smaller, more mobile and affordable instruments. (M)


  • Need to meet data requirements to allow translation of research findings into urban/building design tools and guidelines for different climate zones and classes of urban land-use. (H)

  • Need to ensure that data are provided in a format that is usable for a broad range of practitioners without compromise to scientific accuracy and integrity. (H)

  • Need to ensure metadata to describe instrument, siting, quality assurance and control features and documentation are complete and comparable by creating, and using, a standardized urban protocol. (H)


  • Need to develop methods and frameworks to analyse atmospheric data measured above complex urban surfaces. This includes measurement source areas to ensure representative results and meaningful comparison between sites. (H)

  • Need to know more about the outer layer of the urban boundary layer (UBL), i.e., the atmosphere above the internal surface layer (ISL). (H)

  • Need to assess for each intervention what scale interventions are needed and possible (e.g., legally, economically, planning, technically, etc.) to make cities more sustainable (e.g., livable, healthy, etc.). (H)

  • Need for assessment of human-induced large-scale climate change at the scale of cities to ensure that the signal of climate change is distinguished from the noise of natural variability. (H)

  • Need to better understand the coupling of surface and air temperatures. (M)

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