1
Introduction

Does weather matter? Weather is an integral part of daily life (Figure 1.1). Weather has enormous impact on the economy, public health, and safety in the United States and worldwide. Although the benefit of public weather forecasts and warnings cannot be fully measured in economic terms alone, a recent survey has nevertheless estimated its annualized value at about $31.5 billion, compared to a $5.1 billion cost to generate the information (Lazo et al., 2009).

The goal of weather prediction is to provide information that people and organizations—including public officials, government agencies, businesses, and private citizens—can use to reduce weather-related losses and enhance benefits. Weather and weather forecasts matter for a wide range of societal1 goals, most notably protection of life and property, public health and safety, and support of economic prosperity and quality of life in conjunction with many issues, such as water resource management, sustainable energy development and food production, and transportation.

Weather-related disasters result in significant loss of life and property and disruption to communities and businesses. Between 1980 and 2009 there were 96 disasters in the United States that each caused at least a billion dollars in damage due to very high impact weather events along with total losses exceeding $700 billion (NCDC, 2010; Figure 1.2). On average for the period 1999 to 2008, there were 629 directly caused weather fatalities (NWS, 2010; Figure 1.3), but averages do not tell the whole story. In 1995, there were 1,362 direct weather fatalities, of which more than half were caused by a severe heat wave in Chicago. The most disastrous weather year in the last half century in the United States was 2005, due in large part to

1

Economic considerations are a type of societal consideration; thus, in the remainder of this report, the term “societal” includes “economic.” The “social sciences” are an assembly of scientific disciplines that address social and economic issues; see the introductory paragraphs of Chapter 2 for a more detailed discussion.



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1 Introduction Does weather matter? Weather s an ntegral part of daly lfe (Fgure 1.1). Weather has enormous mpact on the economy, publc health, and safety n the Unted states and worldwde. Although the benefit of publc weather forecasts and warnngs cannot be fully measured n economc terms alone, a recent survey has nevertheless estmated ts annualzed value at about $31.5 bllon, compared to a $5.1 bllon cost to generate the nfor- maton (Lazo et al., 2009). the goal of weather predcton s to provde nformaton that people and organzatons—ncludng publc officals, government agences, busnesses, and prvate ctzens—can use to reduce weather-related losses and enhance benefits. Weather and weather forecasts matter for a wde range of socetal1 goals, most notably protecton of lfe and property, publc health and safety, and support of economc prosperty and qualty of lfe n conjuncton wth many ssues, such as water resource management, sustanable energy de- velopment and food producton, and transportaton. Weather-related dsasters result n sgnficant loss of lfe and property and dsrupton to communtes and busnesses. Between 1980 and 2009 there were 96 dsasters n the Unted states that each caused at least a bllon dollars n damage due to very hgh mpact weather events along wth total losses exceedng $700 bllon (ncDc, 2010; Fgure 1.2). on average for the perod 1999 to 2008, there were 629 drectly caused weather fataltes (nWs, 2010; Fgure 1.3), but averages do not tell the whole story. In 1995, there were 1,362 drect weather fataltes, of whch more than half were caused by a severe heat wave n chcago. the most dsastrous weather year n the last half century n the Unted states was 2005, due n large part to 1 economc consderatons are a type of socetal consderaton; thus, n the remander of ths report, the term “socetal” ncludes “economc.” the “socal scences” are an assembly of scentfic dscplnes that address socal and economc ssues; see the ntroductory paragraphs of chapter 2 for a more detaled dscusson. 17

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18 18 WHen WeAtHeR MAtteRs FIGURE 1.1 This figure shows weather forecasts are integral to the daily life of the U.S. public as well as to U.S. economic activity and public safety. It illustrates the frequent use of weather forecasts for different types of decisions by members of the U.S. public, based on results from a survey of 1,465 respondents. The survey question asked “On average, year round, how often do you use weather forecasts for the activities listed be- low?” As the figure illustrates, weather forecasts are used frequently by many members of the U.S. public for a variety of activities. SOURCE: Lazo et al. (2009). the destructon and death resultng from Hurrcane Katrna; n all, 2005 had nearly 1,500 drect weather fataltes and more than $100 bllon n property and crop damages. the annual mpacts of adverse weather on the natonal hghway system and roads are staggerng: 7,400 weather-related deaths; 1.5 mllon weather-related crashes; more than 700,000 weather-related njures; $42 bllon n economc loss; and nearly 1 bllon hours per year of weather-related delays (Bts, 2007). In addton, $4.2 bllon s lost each year as a result of ar traffic delays attrbuted to weather (noAA, 2010). For comparson, the average economc loss from the effects of arborne volcanc

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IntRoDUctIon 19 FIGURE 1.2 Number and magnitude of U.S. weather disasters that exceeded $1 bil- lion for the 30-year period 1980 to 2009. Although the dashed red curve accounts for inflation-adjusted damages, it does not account for the effects of increasing social vulnerability, increasing coastal populations, and expensive coastal development (e.g., Pielke et al., 2008). SOURCE: NCDC (2010). ash on U.s. ar transportaton s about $70 mllon per year2 (Kte-Powell, 2001). Weather s also a major factor n the complex set of nteractons that determne ar qualty, and more than 60,000 premature deaths each year are attrbuted to poor ar qualty (schwartz and Dockery, 1992). Better forecasts and warnngs are reducng these numbers, but much more can be done. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN U.S. WEATHER RESEARCH the past 15 years have seen marked progress n understandng weather processes and the ablty to observe and predct the weather. At the same tme, the Unted states has faled to match or surpass progress n operatonal numercal weather predcton acheved by some other natons and faled 2 ths average does not nclude the recent eyjafjallajökull erupton. the U.s. state Depart- ment reported on Aprl 20, 2010, that “the economc ramficatons caused by the actv- ty of Iceland’s eyjafjallajökull volcano are mountng, wth arlnes reportng losses on the scale of $200 mllon per day followng the shutdown of many european arports, and a wder mpact movng across the globe as trade goods transported by ar have been un- able to reach ther markets.” source: http://www.amerca.gov/st/busness-englsh/2010/Aprl/ source: 20100420163812esnamfuak6.422061e-02.html.

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20 20 WHen WeAtHeR MAtteRs FIGURE 1.3 10- and 30-year average number of fatalities directly attributable to weather in the United States, not including weather-caused traffic deaths. There are not 30 years of data available for heat-, cold-, winter storm-, or wind-related deaths; therefore only 10-year averages are shown for these events. SOURCE: NWS (2010). to realze the predcton potental we beleve s achevable.3 In addton, there has also not been a commensurate focus on the socal scences and ther role n problem dentficaton, analyss, and response. As a result, the Unted states s not mtgatng weather mpacts—death, njury, dsrupton, and property and economc losses—to the extent possble. Durng the 1990s, federal agences supported a number of weather research and research-to-operatons (R2o) plannng actvtes. For example, the U.s. Weather Research Program (UsWRP) began as a multagency re- search program whose purpose was to dentfy key gaps n the understandng and smulaton of all types of severe weather and ther socetal mpacts n order to accelerate the rate at whch weather forecasts were mproved. the UsWRP was overseen by a scentfic steerng commttee that convened 11 3 An n-depth revew of the natonal oceanc and Atmospherc Admnstraton (noAA) na- tonal Weather servce (nWs) natonal centers for envronmental Predcton (nceP) organzed by the Unversty corporaton for Atmospherc Research at the request of nceP was under way at the tme of the 2009 BAsc summer study workshop. the revew report was recently com- pleted and s avalable onlne at http://www.vsp.ucar.edu/events/nceP_revews_2009.html.

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IntRoDUctIon 21 Prospectus Development teams (PDts) and several communty workshops, whose purpose was to dentfy research opportuntes for mprovng the scentfic understandng of severe weather and ts operatonal forecastng. these PDts and workshops were the startng pont for a number of efforts ncludng field campagns and testbeds that are operatng today. (table 1.1 ncludes reports of the PDts and UsWRP workshops as well as the numer- ous natonal Research councl [nRc] reports that have addressed weather research.) MOTIVATION FOR THE CURRENT STUDy every few years, BAsc works wth ts core agency sponsors (the na- tonal Aeronautcs and space Admnstraton [nAsA], noAA, and the natonal scence Foundaton [nsF]) to desgn a summer study that serves as an opportunty for scentsts, ndustry, and the agences to exchange nformaton and vews about a contemporary ssue. A major component of these studes s a summer workshop desgned to facltate candd dscusson on a topc dentfied by BAsc members as tmely and mportant. Gven the mportance of weather to a wde varety of stakeholders and socetal goals, and the Board’s consensus that U.s. weather research s not cur- rently realzng ts full potental, the 2009 BAsc summer study workshop focused on weather research and the transtonng of research results nto operatons (R2o). the 2009 BAsc summer study workshop examned the progress, pr- ortes, and future drectons of weather research and R2o actvtes n the Unted states (Appendx D). the workshop was desgned to gve the com- mttee nput and feedback from a dverse set of about 50 weather profes- sonals and stakeholders from academa, the prvate sector, and government (Appendx e). In organzng the 2009 BAsc summer study workshop, the commttee drew upon the broad range of ssues dentfied n publcatons that summarzed the findngs of the varous UsWRP PDts and workshops together wth numerous reports prepared by the nRc (table 1.1 lsts all of the reports that were consdered). the commttee used ths nformaton to establsh broad themes for each of the five dfferent workng groups that convened at the 2009 BAsc summer study workshop (see Appendx e for the workshop agenda); the five workshop themes were (1) socoeconomc mpacts; (2) observatons/data assmlaton/model development; (3) very hgh mpact weather; (4) quanttatve precptaton and hydrologc predc- tons; and (5) the unque challenges of topography and urbanzaton. the

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22 22 WHen WeAtHeR MAtteRs TABLE 1.1 Representative List of Publications Since 1995 That Provide Recommendations for Weather Research and Research-To-Operations. Year Type Reference Title 1995 NEXRAD Panel NRC, 1995a Aviation Weather Services: A Call for Federal Leadership and Action 1995 NRC Report NRC, 1995b Toward a New National Weather Service: Assessment of NEXRAD Coverage and Associated Weather Services 1995 USWRP PDT-1 Emanuel et al., 1995 Report of the First Prospectus Development Team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF 1996 USWRP PDT-2 Dabberdt and Schlatter, 1996 Research Opportunities from Emerging Atmospheric Observing and Modeling Capabilities 1996 USWRP PDT-3 Rotunno and Pietrafesa, 1996 Coastal Meteorology and Oceanography 1997 USWRP PDT-4 Smith et al., 1997 Local and Remote Effects of Mountains on Weather: Research Needs and Opportunities 1997 USWRP PDT-6 Pielke et al., 1997 Societal Aspects of Weather 1997 USWRP PDT-7 Emanuel et al., 1997 Observations in Aid of Weather Prediction for North America 1997 USWRP Workshop USWRP, 1997a Workshop on the Social and Economic Impacts of Weather 1997 USWRP Workshop USWRP, 1997b Hurricane Landfall Workshop 1997 USWRP Workshop USWRP, 1997c Workshop on Data Assimilation 1998 NRC Report NRC, 1998a The Atmospheric Sciences: Entering the 21st Century 1998 NRC Report NRC, 1998b The Meteorological Buoy and Coastal Marine Automated Network for the United States 1998 USWRP PDT-5 Marks and Shay, 1998 Landfalling Tropical Cyclones: Forecast Problems and Associated Research Opportunities 1998 USWRP PDT-8 Fritsch et al., 1998 Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting 2000 NRC Report NRC, 2000a Assessment of the Current Status of the U.S. Weather Research Program 2000 NRC Report NRC, 2000b From Research to Operations: Weather Satellites and Numerical Weather Prediction: Crossing the Valley of Death 2000 USWRP PDT-9 Droegemeier et al., 2000 Hydrological Aspects of Weather Prediction and Flood Warnings 2000 USWRP PDT-10 Dabberdt et al., 2000 Forecast Issues in the Urban Zone 2000 USWRP Workshop USWRP, 2000 Workshop on the Weather Research Needs of the Private Sector 2002 NRC Report NRC, 2002 Weather Radar Technology Beyond NEXRAD 2002 USWRP Workshop USWRP, 2002 Warm Season QPF Workshop 2003 NRC Report NRC, 2003a Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research

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IntRoDUctIon 23 Year Type Reference Title 2003 NRC Report NRC, 2003b Fair Weather: Effective Partnerships in Weather and Climate Services 2003 NRC Report NRC, 2003c Tracking and Predicting Atmospheric Dispersion of Hazardous Material Releases: Implications for Homeland Security 2003 NRC Report NRC, 2003d Weather Forecasting Accuracy for FAA Traffic Flow Management: A Workshop Report 2003 USWRP Workshop USWRP, 2003a Workshop on Design and Development of Multifunctional Mesoscale Observing Networks in Support of Integrated Forecasting Systems 2003 USWRP Workshop USWRP, 2003b Air Quality Forecasting Workshop 2004 NRC Report NRC, 2004 Where the Weather Meets the Road: A Research Agenda for Improving Road Weather Services 2004 USWRP PDT-11 Dabberdt et al., 2004 Meteorological Research Needs for Improved Air Quality Forecasting 2005 NRC Report NRC, 2005a Flash Flood Forecasting Over Complex Terrain: With an Assessment of the Sulphur Mountain NEXRAD in Southern California 2005 NRC Report NRC, 2005b Improving the Scientific Foundation for Atmosphere-Land-Ocean Simulations 2006 NRC Report NRC, 2006a Completing the Forecast: Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty for Better Decisions Using Weather and Climate Forecasts 2006 NRC Report NRC, 2006b Toward a New Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service 2007 NRC Report NRC, 2007a Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond 2007 NRC Report NRC, 2007b Environmental Data Management at NOAA: Archiving, Stewardship, and Access 2007 NRC Report NRC, 2007c Strategic Guidance for the National Science Foundation’s Support of the Atmospheric Sciences: An Interim Report 2008 NRC Report NRC, 2008a Evaluation of the Multifunction Phased Array R adar Planning Process 2008 NRC Report NRC, 2008b Satellite Observations to Benefit Science and Society: Recommended Missions for the Next Decade 2009 NRC Report NRC, 2009b Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A Nationwide Network of Networks

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24 24 WHen WeAtHeR MAtteRs five workng groups then dentfied research and transtonal problems, challenges, needs, and opportuntes n eght overlappng areas that frame the organzaton of ths report: • socoeconomcs, • observatons, • weather modelng and predctablty, • hydrologc modelng, • quanttatve precptaton estmaton and forecastng, • mpacts forecastng, • urban weather, and • renewable energy stng and producton. the contents of ths report are based on both the 2009 BAsc summer study workshop and ts workng group delberatons, as well as the expertse and judgment of the commttee members and ther dscussons at subsequent meetngs. Achievements and Challenges In assessng the state of U.s. weather research and operatons, the rate of progress, and the need for advancng research and transtonng results nto operatons, t s helpful to dentfy a baselne or reference pont. the commttee examned progress over the past 15 or so years because that s an nterval long enough to assess achevement yet short enough to gauge the recent rate of progress. It also s a perod when numerous revews and assessments were undertaken. one study n partcular, The Atmospheric Sciences Entering the Twenty- First Century (nRc, 1998b), stands out for ts breadth and depth. the report dentfied two mperatves and three major research recommendatons. the mperatves were seen as crtcal and they consttuted that study’s two hghest prorty recommendatons. Both mperatves pertaned to the state of observatons, and the need for (1) optmzng and ntegratng exstng obser- vaton capabltes, and (2) developng new observaton capabltes. It s not surprsng, then, that the present study also dentfied a smlarly wdespread need for mproved observatons throughout the set of recommendatons. ths need was further artculated n the decadal survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (nRc, 2007a) that brought crtcal attenton to the deteroraton of U.s. satellte observng capabltes.

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IntRoDUctIon 25 the major research recommendatons of the 21st Century report were both dverse n ther scope and nsghtful n ther relevance. the report called for 1. resoluton of nteractons at atmospherc boundares and among df- ferent scales of flow; 2. extenson of a dscplned forecast process to new areas such as cl- mate, chemstry, ar qualty, and space weather; and 3. ntaton of studes of emergng areas, ncludng clmate, weather and health, water resources, and rapdly ncreasng emssons to the atmosphere. snce the md-1990s and the release of the 21st Century report, the Unted states has acheved an mpressve array of advances both n weather research and n transtonng many research results nto operatons. Among those mportant achevements, the followng are several notable examples: • completng full mplementaton n 1997 of the nWs Modernzaton Program (e.g., nRc, 1999) that had begun n the 1980s, hghlghted by ts capstone project—deployment of 166 WsR-88D neXRAD Doppler radars, and subsequently ntatng a program n 2009 to field test the feasblty of upgradng these radars wth dual-polarzaton capablty for hydrometeor classficaton and mproved quanttatve precptaton estmaton • Doublng tornado warnng lead tmes from 6 mnutes n the early 1990s to about 13 mnutes n the current decade, whle almost trplng flash flood warnng tmes from 17 to 45 mnutes over the same nterval. Unfortunately, the annual average number of tornado deaths for the 6-year perod 2000 to 2005 was 44, whch s unchanged from the correspondng average for 1990 to 1995. • Decreasng the 72-hour mean hurrcane track forecast error for the Atlantc Basn from approxmately 480 km (1991–1995) to approxmately 280 km (2003–2008), and decreasng the correspondng 24-hour mean error from approxmately 150 km to approxmately 110 km • Developng more sophstcated research ensemble and probablstc research predctons, and advanced research data assmlaton systems • Implementng a number of nfrastructure programs to facltate test- ng research products and ther transton to operatons, such as the Jont center for satellte Data Assmlaton, the Developmental testbed center, and numerous testbeds (e.g., hurrcane and hydrologc testbeds) • Implementng n 2004 a lmted-area operatonal 24-hour predc- ton product for near-surface 1- and 8-hour ozone concentratons, and a

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26 26 WHen WeAtHeR MAtteRs correspondng conUs (contguous Unted states) capablty that went operatonal n 2007 • establshng n 1994, the naton’s first comprehensve statewde sur- face mesonet n oklahoma, whch has snce bult out to nclude 120 sta- tons. today there are about 70 dsparate federal, state, local, and prvate mesonets throughout the country comprsng more than 27,500 surface statons.4 Although the lst of accomplshments s mportant and encouragng, there are numerous areas where much more needs to be done to better observe and understand weather processes, more accurately and relably predct weather and weather mpacts, and mtgate the negatve and often dsastrous human, economc, and physcal consequences of weather (Fgure 1.4). examples of current challenges nclude the followng: • neXRAD, the U.s. weather radar network, s unable to observe three-quarters of the planetary boundary layer, where people lve and much weather s spawned. • today, forecasts provde predctons of weather varables, but predc- tons of weather mpacts would also be valuable. • Forecasts of wnd and solar rradance for alternatve (or renewable) energy producton and management are n ther nfancy and are woefully nadequate. • Improved observatonal capabltes for sol mosture and profilng the lower atmosphere are lackng yet wdely and urgently needed. • U.s. satellte capabltes are deteroratng. • Hydrologc forecasts are needed to better predct floodng, save lves and property, and manage water resources. • Hurrcane ntensty forecasts stll have alarmngly low skll, as does the quanttatve predcton of warm-season precptaton; both are major challenges n weather and mpacts predcton. Charge and Approach the commttee was charged (Appendx D) wth usng the nformaton and nsght from the 2009 BAsc summer study workshop and prevously publshed works to address questons about U.s. weather research and R2o actvtes: What has and has not been acheved? What may no longer be rel- 4 see http://mads.noaa.gov/mesonet_provders.html.

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IntRoDUctIon 27 FIGURE 1.4 The Great Galveston Hurricane of September 8, 1900 destroyed the city and killed more than 8,000 people (top). More than a century later on August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall on the Louisiana coast, inundating the city of New Orleans and neighboring areas (bottom). Despite a nearly perfect 48-hour track forecast, Katrina caused more than 1,000 direct weather fatalities and more than $81 billion in property and crop damages. SOURCE: NOAA (2007) and iStock Photo.

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28 28 WHen WeAtHeR MAtteRs evant? What current ssues were not prevously antcpated? And what could be done n the short term to renvgorate agency and nteragency plannng for weather research and R2o actvtes n the Unted states? It s mportant to note that ths study does not crtque earler UsWRP or nRc documents, nor does t formally revew current agency plannng documents. ths report represents a sense of the weather communty as dscussed by the workshop partcpants and the commttee; t s not a comprehensve, n-depth assessment of the state of U.s. weather research and the transton of research findngs and products nto operatons. Further, the report does not seek to address mportant ssues unquely related to clmate research nor does t touch on ntra- and nteragency organzatonal procedures and practces. Instead, the report puts forth the commttee’s judgment on the most pressng hgh-level, weather-focused research challenges and R2o needs, and makes correspondng recommendatons. Organization of the Report ths report covers three broad areas—socoeconomcs, establshed needs, and emergng needs. chapter 2 focuses on the pressng and per- vasve need for socoeconomc research and applcatons n vrtually all topcal areas. socoeconomc consderatons are presented first to avod the too-often stereotypng that has occurred n the past when socal scence has been consdered only n hndsght rather than as a prmary element of the problem and the soluton. socoeconomc consderatons provde much of the motvaton for research and R2o actvtes n nonhydrostatc modelng, quanttatve precptaton forecastng and hydrologc predcton, and mesoscale observatons. such consderatons are also an ntegral part of very hgh mpact weather, urban meteorology, and renewable energy producton. socoeconomc needs also motvate and support a growng emphass on understandng the lnkages between clmate and weather through a spectrum of spatal and temporal scales. thus, socoeconomc consderatons are woven throughout the meteorologcal communty’s ac- tvtes and ts prortes. chapter 3 covers four topcal areas that have been addressed n prev- ous studes but that contnue to requre consderable attenton, albet wth ncreased prorty, resources, and a sense of urgency. these are labeled established needs for weather research and the transton of research results nto operatons. Four establshed needs are dentfied. All are n varous stages of development but none have been resolved despte havng been dentfied as pressng n numerous prevous studes. the four establshed

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IntRoDUctIon 29 needs and ssues nclude global nonhydrostatc coupled modelng, quant- tatve precptaton estmaton and forecastng, hydrologc predcton, and mesoscale observatons. chapter 4 addresses several research and R2o needs that have come to be recognzed n the Unted states over the past 5 to 10 years as ncreas- ngly mportant, but that are only n the early stages of understandng or mplementaton. these are labeled emerging weather research and tran- stonal needs, n contrast to the establshed needs dscussed n chapter 3. three hgh-prorty emergng needs were dentfied n the 2009 BAsc summer study workshop and subsequent commttee dscussons; they are very hgh mpact weather, urban meteorology, and renewable energy producton. the reader may wonder why very hgh mpact weather s ncluded here as an emergng need rather than n the precedng chapter as one of several establshed needs. the answer les n the emphass on forecastng weather mpacts n conjuncton wth the tradtonal focus on forecastng weather per se. Urban meteorology had been recognzed n the Unted states n the 1960s as an mportant topc, and much semnal urban meteorologcal research was conducted untl the early 1980s when t was abruptly deemphaszed. A reemphass on the meteorology of the urban zone and ts socetal mport began agan n the 1990s and contnues today. Lastly, the meteorologcal challenges assocated wth the specal needs of the renewable energy ndustry have come nto sharp focus over the past 5 or so years. In all three emergng areas, much remans to be done. Vrtually all research and transtonal needs have both establshed and emergng aspects, and so many of the establshed challenges and needs cted n chapter 3 are closely coupled to the emergng needs dscussed n chapter 4, and vce versa. A few research and R2o needs, such as hurrcane track and ntensty forecastng and ar qualty predcton, are conspcuous by ther absence as named sectons n the report. However, they are ncluded n the dscussons wthn several of the other sectons (e.g., global nonhydrostatc coupled modelng, urban meteorology, and very hgh mpact weather, to name but three). Fnally, chapter 5 provdes a few summary comments whle the ap- pendxes provde references, defintons of acronyms and abbrevatons, bographcal sketches of the commttee members, and detals of the 2009 BAsc summer study workshop that served as the backbone of the study. THE CHALLENGE It s crucal that the weather enterprse address these establshed and

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30 30 WHen WeAtHeR MAtteRs emergng ssues and the research needed to develop the capacty to deal wth them, and transfer mportant research results nto operatons. We need to start by recognzng that as the world and the Unted states’ challenges have changed, the scentfic research prortes and operatonal prortes need to change as well. As such, ths report and ts recommendatons are relevant to all partes n the weather enterprse: agency decson makers, polcy makers, research scentsts, prvate-sector applcatons specalsts, teachers, publc and prvate user groups and organzatons, and the general publc. In partcular, ths report s ntended to nform nAsA, noAA, and nsF program managers and polcy makers of the many prortes that need to be addressed n gudng the future of U.s. weather research and operatons.