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and zoonoses; the introduction and release of genetically modified organisms and their products; and the introduction and management of invasive alien species and genotypes.

Bioterrorism The intentional release of viruses, bacteria, or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants.

Bottom-up data Data that model the path of pathogens from their source through the food supply chain to health outcomes.

CARVER+Shock A risk assessment tool that enables users to conduct assessments of the risks of, and vulnerabilities to, intentional contamination of a food production and distribution process. Its use by the food and agriculture sector and government agencies originates in its use by military special operations forces. The acronym stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect, and Recognizability, which are the factors considered in assessing risk and vulnerability.

Class I recall A situation in which there is a reasonable probability that the use of, or exposure to, a violative product will cause serious adverse health consequences or death.

Classified information According to U.S. Code Title 18, any information or material that has been determined by the U.S. Government—pursuant to an executive order, statute, or regulation—to require protection against unauthorized disclosure for reasons of national security, and any restricted data, as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954.

Cooperative Extension System A network of nationwide offices staffed by one or more experts who provide useful, practical, and research-based information to agricultural producers, small business owners, youth, consumers, and others in rural areas and communities of all sizes.

Decision analysis An applied branch of decision theory that offers individuals and organizations a methodology for making decisions; it also offers techniques for modeling decision problems mathematically and determining optimal decisions numerically. Decision models have the capacity for accepting and quantifying human subjective inputs, including judgments of experts and preferences of decision makers. Implementation of these models can take various forms ranging from simple paper-and-pencil procedures to sophisticated computer programs known as decision aids or decision systems.

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