Academy of Engineering (NAE) in 1998 and chaired the Aerospace Engineering section from 2005 to 2007. He also served as vice chair of the NRC Naval Studies Board from 2000 to 2004.

WILLIAM F. BALLHAUS, JR., is the retired president and chief executive officer (CEO) of the Aerospace Corporation, an independent, nonprofit organization dedicated to the objective application of science and technology toward the solution of critical issues in the nation’s space program. Dr. Ballhaus joined Aerospace as president in 2000 after an 11-year career with Lockheed Martin Corporation. At Lockheed Martin, Dr. Ballhaus served as corporate officer and vice president, engineering and technology, where he was responsible for advancing the company’s scientific and engineering capabilities and for overseeing research and engineering functions. Prior to his tenure with Lockheed Martin, Dr. Ballhaus served as president of two Martin Marietta businesses, Aero and Naval Systems (1993-1994) and Civil Space and Communications (1990-1993). Before joining Martin Marietta, Dr. Ballhaus served as the director of the NASA Ames Research Center (1984-1989). He also served as the acting associate administrator for aeronautics and space technology at NASA Headquarters (1988-1989). Dr. Ballhaus is a member of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Science Advisory Board. He serves on the board of directors of Draper Laboratory. He also is a member of the NAE and completed two 3-year terms as a member of the Council in 2007. Currently, Dr. Ballhaus serves as chair of the Space Foundation. He is an honorary fellow of the AIAA and served as its president in 1988-1989. He is a fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society and the American Astronautical Society and is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics. He serves on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Advisory Council and served on the Defense Science Board (2001-2009) and the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (1994-2001; co-chair, 1996-1999). He is a graduate of the University of California, Berkeley, where he earned a Ph.D. in engineering and his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mechanical engineering.

PETER M. BANKS is a partner and chair of the Scientific Advisory Board for Astrolabe Ventures. Previously, he was CEO and president of Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) International, Inc., and partner of XR Ventures, the investment arm of the X-Rite Corporation. He served as the Dean of Engineering at the University of Michigan and was a faculty member of Stanford University and the University of California. While at Stanford, Dr. Banks led the Space, Telecommunications and Radio Science Laboratory of the Department of Electrical Engineering. He participated in several space shuttle missions through his role as PI for the Shuttle Electro-Dynamic Tether System and as a coinvestigator on the flight of Spacelab-1. Dr. Banks’s scientific interests are related to Earth’s upper atmosphere and ionosphere and, in particular, to the electrodynamics of these regions. In addition, he has studied many aspects of global environmental change from theoretical and experimental points of view. Many of his interests in space plasmas have been related to a number of space shuttle experiments devoted to exploring the behavior of an electrodynamic tether system in low Earth orbit. This work included attempting to understand the behavior of energetic electron beams injected into the ionosphere from the space shuttle. He has received the U.S. Government’s Distinguished Public Service Medal for his contributions to NASA programs. He serves as the chairman of the board of the Universities Space Research Association. He has also served on the boards of a number of start-up companies, including Triformix (Santa Rosa, California) and HandyLab (Ann Arbor, Michigan). Dr. Banks has advised the Euro-America funds and various federal agencies on work related to defense, space exploration, and national economic security. Dr. Banks earned a Ph.D. in physics at Pennsylvania State University following an M.S.E.E. degree from Stanford University. Dr. Banks is a member of the NAE and has served as co-chair of the NRC Committee on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications.

RAMON L. CHASE is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) consultant for Analytic Services, Inc. Mr. Chase consults for an advanced aircraft conceptual design activity under the FALCON program. He is a member of the DARPA government oversight team on science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. He previously supported DARPA Advanced Launch Vehicles, RASCAL, FALCON, CAV, and Immune Building Programs and is an expert in the following fields: aircraft,

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