• Feedback of increased ocean surface CO2 on air-sea exchange of CO2, dimethlysulphide and other gases important for climate and air quality
• Large-scale manipulation experiments on the effect of increased CO2 on biota in the surface waters.
Kleypas, J.A., R.A. Feely, V.J. Fabry, C. Langdon, C.L. Sabine, and L.L. Robbins. 2006. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers: A Guide for Future Research, report of a workshop held 18–20 April 2005, St. Petersburg, FL, sponsored by NSF, NOAA, and the U.S. Geological Survey, 99 pp.
Summary: The paper is the result of a workshop, sponsored by NSF, NOAA, and the USGS. Roughly 50 scientists participated from a wide range of disciplines. The aims of the workshop were to summarize existing knowledge on the topic of ocean acidification impacts on marine calcifiers, reach a consensus on what the most pressing scientific issues are, and identify future research strategies for addressing these issues. The report is intended as a guide to program managers and researchers toward designing research projects with the details and references needed to address the major scientific issues that should be pursued in the next 5-10 years.
• Develop protocols for the various methodologies used in seawater chemistry and calcification measurements
• Determine the calcification response to elevated CO2 in benthic and planktonic calcifiers
• Physiological research to discriminate the various mechanisms of calcification within calcifying groups, to better understand the cross-taxa range of responses to changing seawater chemistry
• Experimental studies to determine the interactive effects of multiple variables that affect calcification and dissolution in organisms (saturation state, light, temperature, nutrients)
• Combining laboratory experiments with field studies to establish clear links between laboratory experiments and the natural environment
• Long-term monitoring of coral reef response to ocean acidification, and better accounting of calcium carbonate budgets
• Monitoring of in situ calcification and dissolution in organisms
• Incorporating ecological questions into observations and experiments; e.g., effects on organism survivorship and ecology, ecosystem functioning, etc.
• Biogeochemical and ecological modeling to improve understanding of carbonate system interactions, and to guide future sampling and experimental efforts