reductions in productivity. Reef managers could focus protection efforts on critical elements of the reef ecosystem. For example, herbivores have been identified as a key functional group for maintenance of coral reef ecosystems; protection efforts could ensure that herbivores are afforded special protection (Johnson and Marshall, 2007). Another example is identifying and protecting refugia—areas that are less affected by ocean acidification and other stressors and that can serve as a refuge for organisms (Johnson and Marshall, 2007; West et al., 2009). It is also important to promote the social and economic resilience and adaptive capacity of users that rely on tropical coral reefs. All of this will require a great deal more information on both the biological impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs as well as the socioeconomic systems that will be affected.

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