and subject data to answer research questions that are not definitively answered by single studies.

  • For medical products (drugs, devices, and biologics) that are coming to market, the Food and Drug Administration should enforce compliance with the requirement for sex-stratified analyses of efficacy and safety and should take those analyses into account in regulatory decisions.

  • The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and other editors of relevant journals should adopt a guideline that all papers reporting the outcomes of clinical trials report on men and women separately unless a trial is of a sex-specific condition (such as endometrial or prostatic cancer). The National Institutes of Health should sponsor a meeting to facilitate establishment of the guidelines.

Finding 6

The translation of research findings into practice can be delayed or precluded by various barriers—the complexity of science and research and challenges in communicating understandable and actionable messages, social or political opposition to advances for nonmedical reasons, fragmentation of health-care delivery, health-care policies and reimbursement, consumer confusion and apprehension, and so on. Many of those barriers are seen in connection with translation of research in general, but some have aspects that are peculiar to women, and few studies have been conducted to examine how to increase the speed or extent of the translation of findings related specifically to women’s health into clinical practice. Methods of translation that have been used and that warrant evaluation for translating research findings in women include clinical-practice guidelines, mandatory standards, reimbursement practices, laws (including public-health laws), health-professions school curricula, and continuing education.

Recommendation 6

Research should be conducted on how to translate research findings on women’s health into clinical practice and public-health policies rapidly. Research findings should be incorporated at the practitioner level and at the overall public-health systems level through, for example, the use of education programs targeted to practitioners and the development of guidelines. As programs and guidelines are developed and implemented, they should be evaluated to ensure effectiveness.

Finding 7

The public is confused by conflicting findings and opposing recommendations that emerge from health research, including women’s health research. Conflicting results and work to resolve disagreements are part of the scientific process, but

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