elements), how the message should be framed (regarding an individual or a population), how the information should be transmitted (in scientific publications or by professional organizations, medical practitioners, or the mass media), who the target audience of the message is (health-care providers, women, or both), who uses the information, and, ultimately, what the individual woman, does with the information (Bero et al., 1998; Berwick, 2003; IOM, 2001a; Kreuter and Wray, 2003; Rogers, 1995).
The steps in translating research discoveries into practice are outlined in Figure 5-1. The initial step generally occurs with the publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals. For some topics, the news media may immediately report the findings, as in the coverage of the WHI. If research findings will affect clinical practice, professional societies may develop clinical-practice guidelines. At each step, constraints associated with current practices limit the translation of findings into improved services. In cases where there are uncertainties or contradictory research findings, guidelines from different organizations can differ or updated guidelines might reflect recent data and contradict previous guidelines, leading to confusion. For example, if research findings are not analyzed or presented separately for women and men, this might decrease their utility in addressing women’s needs, including the development of women-specific