from these sources and the potential for introducing health risks to personnel and other facility animals. Breeding colonies should be established based on need and managed according to principles of animal reduction such as cryopreservation for rodent stocks or strains (Robinson et al. 2003).

Transportation of Animals

Transportation of animals is governed by a number of US regulatory agencies and international bodies. The Animal Welfare Regulations (USDA 1985) set standards for interstate and export/import transportation of regulated species; the International Air Transport Association (IATA) updates the Live Animals Regulations annually and IATA member airlines and many countries agree to comply with these regulations to ensure the safe and humane transport of animals by air (IATA 2009). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and USDA enforce regulations to prevent the introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases and regulate the importation of any animal or animal product capable of carrying a zoonotic disease. The US Fish and Wildlife Service regulates importation/exportation of wild vertebrate and invertebrate animals and their tissues. As the national authority arm of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the US Fish and Wildlife Service also regulates movement of CITES-listed species that are captive bred, including nonhuman primates (DOI 2007). Institutions should contact appropriate authorities to ensure compliance with any relevant statutes and other animal transportation requirements that must be met for animals to cross international boundaries, including those not of the country of final destination. The NRC publication Guidelines for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals provides a comprehensive review of this topic (NRC 2006); additional references on transportation of animals are available in Appendix A.

Animal transportation may be intrainstitutional, interinstitutional, or between a commercial or noncommercial source and a research facility. For wildlife, transportation may occur between the capture site and field holding facilities. Careful planning for all types of transportation should occur to ensure animal safety and well-being. The process of transportation should provide an appropriate level of animal biosecurity (see definition on page 109) while minimizing zoonotic risks, protecting against environmental extremes, avoiding overcrowding, providing for the animals’ physical, physiologic, or behavioral needs and comfort, and protecting the animals and personnel from physical trauma (Maher and Schub 2004).

Movement of animals within or between sites or institutions should be planned and coordinated by responsible and well-trained persons at the sending and receiving sites to minimize animal transit time or delays in

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