infections in African species but induce clinical disease in Asian species.
Some species should be housed in separate rooms even though they are from the same geographic region. For example, squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) may be latently infected with herpesviruses (Herpesvirus saimiri and H. tamarinus, respectively), which could be transmitted to and cause a fatal epizootic disease in owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus) (Barahona et al. 1975; Hunt and Melendez 1966; Murphy et al. 1971).
Intraspecies separation may be essential when animals obtained from multiple sites or sources, either commercial or institutional, differ in pathogen status—for example, with respect to rat theilovirus in rats, mouse hepatitis virus in mice, bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, Pasteurella multocida in rabbits, Macacine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) in macaque species, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in swine.
All animals should be observed for signs of illness, injury, or abnormal behavior by a person trained to recognize such signs. As a rule, such observation should occur at least daily, but more frequent observations may be required, such as during postoperative recovery, when animals are ill or have a physical deficit, or when animals are approaching a study endpoint. Professional judgment should be used to ensure that the frequency and character of observations minimize risks to individual animals and do not compromise the research for which the animals are used.
Appropriate procedures should be in place for disease surveillance and diagnosis. Unexpected deaths and signs of illness, distress, or other deviations from normal in animals should be reported promptly and investigated, as necessary, to ensure appropriate and timely delivery of veterinary medical care. Animals that show signs of a contagious disease should be isolated from healthy animals. If an entire room or enclosure of animals is known or believed to be exposed to an infectious agent (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis in nonhuman primates), the group should be kept intact during the process of diagnosis, treatment, and control.
Procedures for disease prevention, diagnosis, and therapy should be those currently accepted in veterinary and laboratory animal practice. Health monitoring programs also include veterinary herd/flock health programs for livestock and colony health monitoring programs for aquatic and rodent species. Access to diagnostic laboratory services facilitates veterinary medical care and can include gross and microscopic pathology, hematology, microbiology, parasitology, clinical chemistry, molecular diagnostics,